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Table 3 Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for isoprene production

From: Bio-production of gaseous alkenes: ethylene, isoprene, isobutene

Organism Description Productivity Yield (mg g−1 dcw) Titer (g L−1) Reference
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from I. batatas 40 µg L−1 h−1    [58]
Escherichia coli BL21 Engineered with P. alba ispS and S. cerevisiae MVA pathway 11,083 µg L−1 h−1   0.532 [94]
Escherichia coli BL21 DXS, DXR, and IDI from S. pneumoniae were overexpressed, ispA was weakened; P. alba ispS 829 µg L−1 h−1   0.0199 [95]
Escherichia coli BL21 Two component system (1) E. coli optimized for mevalonate production from sugar was used as a feedstock for (2) E. coli engineered with MVA and ispS 230,000 µg L−1 h−1   11.0 [96]
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from P. alba, +mvaE, mvaS from E. faecalis, +mvk, PMK, MVD, IDI from S. cervisiae, + mvk from M. mazei, + pgl from E. coli 2,000,000 µg L−1 h−1 850 60 [97]
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from P. nigra, +DXS, DXR from E. coli    0.16 [59]
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from P. nigra, +DXS, DXR from B. subtilis    0.31 [59]
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from P. montana, + DXS, ispG, ispH, ipi, ispE, DXR, ispD, ispF from E. coli, selection of translation initiation regions and adjustment of gene order in the superoperon 277 µg L−1 h−1   0.005 [22]
Escherichia coli BL21 ispS from P. montana, + hmgS, hmgR from E. faecalis, + atoB from E. coli, +fni, mk, pmk, pmd from S. pneumoniae, selection of translation initiation regions 17,778 µg L−1 h−1   0.32 [22]
Escherichia coli BL21 2 mvaE, mvaS from E. faecalis, + ERG12, ERG8, ERG19, IDI from S. cerevisiae, codon-optimized ispS from P. alba, mvaS gene mutation    6.3 [98]
Escherichia coli BL21 Codon-adapted ispS from P. alba, +DXS, DXR, IDI from E. coli, adjustment of gene order in the polycistron 2727 µg g−1 dcw h−1    [17]
Escherichia coli BL21 Truncated ispS from P. alba, +DXS, DXR, IDI, pgl, fldA, ispG from E. coli, +ispH from Anabaena, +ispG system from T. elongatus    8.4 [99]
Escherichia coli BL21 Enhanced MEP pathway and combined with MVA pathway 52,500 µg L−1 h−1    [100]
Escherichia coli MG1655 Codon-optimized ispS from P. trichocarpa, augmented MVA pathway, and deleted genes involved in aceto-CoA byproduct formation    1.832 [101]
Synechococcus elongatus Fused ISPS from P. alba with IDI from S. cerevisiae 4600 µg L−1 h−1    [57]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Fused ISPS with CPCB (phyocyanin) to increase production   5.4   [102]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 codon-optimized ispS from P. montana 2.08 µg g−1 dcw h−1    [103]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Codon-optimized ispS from P. montana   0.12 3.2 [104]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Engineered psbA2 promoter-driven ispS and codon optimized from P. montana 40 µg L−1 h−1    [104]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Codon-optimized P. montana ispS 2 µg L−1 h−1    [105]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Codon-optimized P. montana ispS 63 µg L−1 h−1    [20]
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Codon-optimized kudzu ispS under rbcL promoter 1.16 µg L−1 h−1 A750−1    [53]
Bacillus subtilis Engineered DXS, DXR    1e−6 [106]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Multiple copies of codon-optimized ispS from P. montana 7 µg L−1 h−1   5e−4 [107]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 copies of codon-optimized ispS from P. alba, +tHMG1, IDI, ACS2, ERG10 from S. cerevisiae, down-regulation of ERG20 by promoter replacement   25 0.037 [108]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enhanced Gal4p supply and directed evolution of IspS 51,388 µg L−1 h−1   3.7 [56]