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Table 1 List of key miRNA pathway genes in animals, plants and algae

From: Mechanisms of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in unicellular model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

  Gene (gene products) Function in miRNA pathway Animals (C. elegans) Plants (A. thaliana) Algae (C. reinhardtii)
miRNA biogenesis Dicer (Ribonuclease III) Cleavage of pre-miRNA or pri-miRNA Drosha [11, 12]; Dicer1 [81, 82] DCL1 [18, 19, 21] CrDCL3 [33]
DRB (Double-stranded RNA binding Protein) Assist efficient and precise cleavage of pri-miRNA through interaction with Dicer Pasha [12, 13] DRB1(HYL1) [20, 22, 23, 26]; DRB2 [87,88,89]; DRB5 [90] DUS16 [35, 91] ?
Others Other nuclear regulators in primary microRNA processing Ars2 [75, 76] SE [24, 25] ?
miRNA export Exportin Export pre-miRNA or miRNA/miRNA* from nucleus to cytoplasm Exportin5 [14, 15] HASTY [79, 80] ?
miRNA action AGO (Argonaute) Central component of RISC, mediate miRNA-directed regulation of endogenous gene expression AGO1 [17]; AGO2 [34] AGO1 [54, 55]; AGO2 [56]; AGO4 [57]; AGO5 [36]; AGO7 [58]; AGO10 [107] CrAGO3 [34, 74]
RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) This complex consists of several proteins and RNA molecules that altogether trigger transcript degradation or preventing translation of target mRNA eIF6 [59, 60]; eIF2C2, Gemin4, Gemin3 [61,62,63] HSP90 [107]; EMA1 [84]; TRN1 [84] ?
mature miRNA modification HEN1 (small RNA methyl transferase) Methylation prevents miRNAs from degradation triggered by uridylation HEN1 [18, 27,28,29] ?
miRNA degradation Uridylation Terminal nucleotidyl transferase that prefers to add untem-plated uridine to the 3′ end of RNA HESO1 [108, 109]; URT1 [110]; SDN1, SDN2 [30, 107,108,109] MUT68 [118]; RRP6 [118]
  1. Unidentified genes in C. reinhardtii are indicated with ‘?’