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Table 2 Chemical composition (% dry basis) of regenerated hybrid poplar biomass after [EMIM][CH3COO] and [AMIM][HCOO] activation at 10 wt% loading for varying activation times

From: Structural changes in lignocellulosic biomass during activation with ionic liquids comprising 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions

Chemical composition Control HP (untreated) [EMIM][CH3COO]-activated HP [AMIM][HCOO]-activated HP
Activation time (h) 3 72 3 72
Cellulose (%) 44.2a
± 0.2
43.4b
± 0.1
43.5b
± 0.3
42.8c
± 0.2
42.6c
± 0.1
Hemicellulose (%) 20.6a
± 0.1
20.2a
± 0.1
19.9a
± 0.2
19.0b
± 0.2
18.5b
± 0.3
Total carbohydrates (%)1 64.5a
± 0.9
63.7ab
± 0.3
63.4b
± 0.5
61.8c
± 0.3
61.2c
± 0.2
Lignin (%) 27.8b
± 0.6
28.9a
± 0.2
27.8b
± 0.3
27.9b
± 0.3
27.5b
± 0.5
Acetyl content (%) 5.9a
± 0.07
5.3b
± 0.05
3.3e
± 0.05
4.9c
± 0.02
4.8d
± 0.03
Decrease in acetyl content (%)2 10.2 44.1 16.9 18.6
  1. Mean ± standard deviation are based on triplicate measurements
  2. Least significant difference (LSD) test was performed to determine differences within each biomass constituent. Means with the same letter (a, b, c, d, and e) are not significantly different by LSD at p < 0.05
  3. 1Total carbohydrate content is the sum of cellulose and hemicellulose
  4. 2\({\text{Decrease in acetyl content}} = \frac{{ {\text{Acetyl}}_{\text{Control}} - {\text{Acetyl}}_{{{\text{IL}} - {\text{activated}} {\text{HP}}}} }}{{{\text{Acetyl}}_{\text{Control}} }} \times 100\% ,\) with IL being [EMIM][CH3COO] or [AMIM][HCOO]