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Table 1 Manipulation of stress factors by phytohormones

From: Microalgae for the production of lipid and carotenoids: a review with focus on stress regulation and adaptation

Species Phytohormones Stress Performance References
Scenedesmus quadricauda ABA Nitrogen-deficient stress The dry biomass yield was increased up to 2.1 fold [56]
Chlorella sorokiniana IAA, DA-6 Nitrogen-limited stress Growth and lipid accumulation were both promoted and phytohormones enhances CAT and SOD enzyme activities [52]
Nannochloropsis oceanica ABA, CKs Nitrogen-depletion stress Exogenous CKs stimulate cell-cycle progression, but ABA acts as both an algal growth repressor and a positive regulator in response to stresses [70]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii IAA, GA3, KIN, TRIA, ABA Nitrogen-limited stress All five of the tested phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media [54]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ABA Osmotic and salt stresses ABA treatment markedly reduced ROS generation and enhanced gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes [58]
Chlorella vulgaris IAA, PAA, IBA, NAA Oxidative stress All auxins can suppress lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation [49]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ABA Oxidative stress Addition of ABA improve the growth of this alga [67]