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Table 3 Elemental compositions in atomic percentage derived from XPS survey spectra

From: Overcoming biomass recalcitrance by synergistic pretreatment of mechanical activation and metal salt for enhancing enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose

Sample Atomic percentage (%) O/C
O 1 s C 1 s Al 2p Fe 2p Cl 2p N 1 s
Untreated lignin 22.67 77.33 0.293
MA-pretreated lignin 25.94 74.06 0.350
MA + AlCl3 pretreated lignin 25.04 73.46 1.14 0.36 0.341
MA + FeCl3 pretreated lignin 24.48 72.02 0.98 0.52 0.331
MA + Al(NO3)3 pretreated lignin 24.83 71.51 1.36 2.30 0.347
MA + Fe(NO3)3 pretreated lignin 26.28 69.65 0.76 3.39 0.377