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Table 3 Comparison between microscale and bulk microalgae culture

From: Microfluidic techniques for enhancing biofuel and biorefinery industry based on microalgae

Microalgae Refs. Culture size Growth rate (method) Maximum yields
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [22] Micro: flowed droplets between 14 and 1766 pL
Bulk: flasks 100 mL
2.08 day−1a (count)
2.08 day−1a (count)
1.1 × 108 cells mL−1
1.2 × 107 cells mL−1
[17] Micro: mechanical trap 904 pL
Bulk: flask 100 mL
0.46–4.01 day−1a (F.I.)
1.30–1.85 h−1a (OD750)
Biomass: 5.72 g L−1 Lipids: 10 g L−1
Biomass: 5 g L−1
Lipids: 10 g L−1
[18] Micro: mechanical trap 1 nL
Bulk: –
1.85–2.08 day−1a (image transparency)
0.92–1.04 day−1a (OD600)
[31] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: flask 250 mL
*
Lipids: 34.9 wt%
Lipids: ~ 27 wt %a
[35] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: flask 100 mL
~1.0 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 131.86 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 135 mg L−1 day
Chlorella protothecoides [35] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: flask 100 mL
~ 1.1 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 166.70 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 170 mg L−1 day−1
Chlorella sorokiniana [38] Micro: trap –
Bulk: flask –
1.75 day−1a (count)
1.35 day−1a (OD730)

Chlorella vulgaris [22] Micro: flowed droplets between 14 and 1766 pL
Bulk: flasks 100 mL
1.39 day−1a (count)
1.39 day−1a (count)
4.5 × 108 cells mL−1
2.5 × 108 cells mL−1
[24] Micro: static droplet ~ 10 nL
Bulk: bioreactor 1L
0.55 to 1.52 day−1 (count)
1.12 day−1 (count)
Cell density in droplet = 20
Folds in bioreactor
[35] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: flask 100 mL
~1.2 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 160.83 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 150 mg L−1 day−1
Chlorella zofingiensis [35] Micro: Microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: flask 100 mL
~ 1.1 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 147.98 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 140 mg L−1 day−1
Chlorella sp. [30] Micro: microchamber 240 nL
Bulk: flask –
0.71 day−1 (count)
0.63 day−1 (count)
3.12 × 106 cells mL−1a
5.20 × 106 cells mL−1a
Cyclotella cryptica [23] Micro: EWOD droplet ~ 70 µL
Bulk: flaks 30–60 mL
0.39 day−1a at R.T. (OD660)
0.45 day−1a at 14oC (OD660)
*
Dunaliella tertiolecta [22] Micro: flowed droplets between 14 and 1766 pL
Bulk: flasks 100 mL
0.69 day−1a (count)
0.69 day−1a (count)
1.5 × 108 cells mL−1
9.0 × 106 cells mL−1
Haematococcus pluvialis [34] Micro: microchamber 400 µL
Bulk: flask 250 mL
0.25 day−1
Astaxanthin: 45.62 mg L−1 day−1
Astaxanthin: 27.63 mg L−1 day−1
Neochloris oleoabundans [33] Micro: microchamber 400 µL
Bulk: flask 250 mL
2.13 day−1 (OD680)
1.34 day−1 (OD680)
*Lipids: F. I. in Micro ~ 160%
In Bulk
[35] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: Flask 100 mL
~1.1 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 144.53 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 145 mg L−1 day−1
Phaeodactylum tricornutum [30] Micro: microchamber 240 nL
Bulk: flask –
1.21 day−1 (count)
1.04 day−1 (count)
4.73 × 106 cells mL−1a
4.00 × 106 cells mL−1a
Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis [30] Micro: microchamber 240 nL
Bulk: flask –
0.75 day−1 (count)
0.71 day−1 (count)
1.12 × 106 cells mL−1a
1.04 × 106 cells mL−1a
Platymonas subcordiformis [30] Micro: Microchamber 240 nL
Bulk: flask –
0.31 day−1 (count)
0.31 day−1 (count)
1.52 × 106 cells mL−1a
1.31 × 106 cells mL−1a
Porphyridium cruentum [30] Micro: microchamber 240 nL
Bulk: flask –
0.52 day−1 (count)
0.40 day−1 (count)
6.06 × 106 cells mL−1a
4.70 × 106 cells mL−1a
Scenedesmus sp. [35] Micro: microchamber 500 µL
Bulk: Flask 100 mL
~ 0.4 day−1 (OD800)
Lipids: 105.42 mg L−1 day−1
Lipids: ~ 100 mg L−1 day−1
Synechococcus elongatus [38] Micro: trap –
Bulk: flask –
2.28–2.92 day−1a (count)
1.30–2.60 day−1a (OD730)

Synechococcus sp. [38] Micro: trap –
Bulk: flask –
0.73 day−1a (count)
0.62 day−1a (OD730)

  1. –, not available
  2. * Only optical density or fluorescence intensity is available
  3. aEstimated from the reported information