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Fig. 6 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 6

From: Kluyveromyces marxianus developing ethanol tolerance during adaptive evolution with significant improvements of multiple pathways

Fig. 6

Cell growth assay on ethanol and cell viability and fermentation under multiple stresses. a Cell growth assay of KM and KM-100d based on glucose or ethanol as a carbon source. A cell suspension of 10 OD600 was fivefold serially diluted and spotted onto a YNB plate with glucose or ethanol as the only carbon source and cultured for 2 days, as illustrated along columns. b Cell viability assay of KM and KM-100d under thermic stress. The temperatures are 30 °C, 37 °C, 40 °C, and 45 °C. c Cell viability assay under oxidative stress. H2O2 was used as oxidation stimulus, and its concentrations are 0%, 0.04%, 0.06%, and 0.08%. d Cell viability under osmotic pressure. High salt (NaCl) was used to cause osmotic pressure, with concentrations of 0 M, 0.5 M, 0.6 M, and 0.7 M. e Ethanol yield and glucose utilization in KM and KM-100d in the basic circumstance. f Ethanol yield and glucose utilization under 45 °C. g Ethanol yield and glucose utilization under 6% (v/v) ethanol stress. h Ethanol yield and glucose utilization under 8% (v/v) ethanol stress. In subfigure bd, KM and KM-100d are in the first and second rows, respectively. A cell suspension of 10 OD600 was 5-fold serially diluted and spotted onto a YPD plate and cultured for 2 days. Except for the thermic test with specified temperatures, other tests were all carried out at 30 °C. In subfigure eh, the left y-axis and right y-axis represent glucose residues in the medium (denoted in black) and ethanol production (denoted in blue), respectively

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