Skip to main content

Table 3 Possible biofuels from microalgae and conversion processes

From: Latest development in microalgae-biofuel production with nano-additives

Biofuel Conversion processes Some potential nano-additives for biofuel yield enhancement References
Bioethanol, biobutanol, biomethanol, bioaceton Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)
Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)
Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF)
Dark fermentation
Photo fermentation
Anaerobic fermentation
Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation
Consolidated bioprocessing
Fe2O3, CeO2-CNT and others [42, 49, 85,86,87,88,89]
Biodiesel Lipid hydrolysis and chemical, physical, enzymatic transesterification
Interesterification
Acidolysis
Alcoholysis associated with glycerolysis
Folch method (use of chloroform–methanol)
Bligh and dyer method (use of chloroform–methanol)
Modified method of the Folch/Bligh and dyer methods (use of methyl-tert-butyl-ether)
Superior solvent extraction method (use of chloroform)
Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification
Post-transesterification
Wet extraction method
Deep eutectic solvent (DES) method
ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO-NPs and others [46, 77, 78, 90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100]
Syngas Gasification
Pyrolysis
Direct combustion
Bio-electrochemical fuel cells
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG)
Hydrothermal gasification
TiO2, CeO2 and others [88, 101,102,103,104,105]
Bio-electricity Bio-electrochemical system contain anode, cathode and electrode
Direct combustion
Fe2O3, CeO2-CNT, CaO-NPs and others [106,107,108]
Biomethane Anaerobic digestion
Catalytic hydrothermal gasification
SiO2, nano-particles of platinum (Pt), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and others [46, 109,110,111,112]
Bio-hydrogen Solid-state anaerobic digestion
Biophotolysis
Photobiological hydrogen production
Dark fermentation
Photo fermentation
Solid-state fermentation
Suspended fermentation
TiO2, CeO2 and others [113,114,115,116,117,118]
Bio-oil and bio-char Hydrothermal (thermochemical) liquefaction
Pyrolysis
Expeller press
Bead beating
Ultrasound assisted extraction method
Microwave extraction method
Electroporation/electropermeabilization
Slow pyrolysis
Fast pyrolysis
Torrefaction
Hydrothermal carbonization
Hydrothermal liquefaction
Ion exchange
Wet imprgenation
Catalytic hydropyrolysis
Hydrogenation
Hydrodeoxygenation
CeO2-CNT, SiO2-MgO nanohybrids and others [46, 90, 119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127]