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Table 3 Possible biofuels from microalgae and conversion processes

From: Latest development in microalgae-biofuel production with nano-additives

Biofuel Conversion processes Some potential nano-additives for biofuel yield enhancement References
Bioethanol, biobutanol, biomethanol, bioaceton Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)
Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)
Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF)
Dark fermentation
Photo fermentation
Anaerobic fermentation
Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation
Consolidated bioprocessing
Fe2O3, CeO2-CNT and others [42, 49, 85,86,87,88,89]
Biodiesel Lipid hydrolysis and chemical, physical, enzymatic transesterification
Alcoholysis associated with glycerolysis
Folch method (use of chloroform–methanol)
Bligh and dyer method (use of chloroform–methanol)
Modified method of the Folch/Bligh and dyer methods (use of methyl-tert-butyl-ether)
Superior solvent extraction method (use of chloroform)
Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification
Wet extraction method
Deep eutectic solvent (DES) method
ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO-NPs and others [46, 77, 78, 90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100]
Syngas Gasification
Direct combustion
Bio-electrochemical fuel cells
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG)
Hydrothermal gasification
TiO2, CeO2 and others [88, 101,102,103,104,105]
Bio-electricity Bio-electrochemical system contain anode, cathode and electrode
Direct combustion
Fe2O3, CeO2-CNT, CaO-NPs and others [106,107,108]
Biomethane Anaerobic digestion
Catalytic hydrothermal gasification
SiO2, nano-particles of platinum (Pt), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and others [46, 109,110,111,112]
Bio-hydrogen Solid-state anaerobic digestion
Photobiological hydrogen production
Dark fermentation
Photo fermentation
Solid-state fermentation
Suspended fermentation
TiO2, CeO2 and others [113,114,115,116,117,118]
Bio-oil and bio-char Hydrothermal (thermochemical) liquefaction
Expeller press
Bead beating
Ultrasound assisted extraction method
Microwave extraction method
Slow pyrolysis
Fast pyrolysis
Hydrothermal carbonization
Hydrothermal liquefaction
Ion exchange
Wet imprgenation
Catalytic hydropyrolysis
CeO2-CNT, SiO2-MgO nanohybrids and others [46, 90, 119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127]