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Table 6 Applications of nano-additives for biodiesel-yield enhancements during microalgae to biofuel conversion, suitable conversion processes, and efficiencies

From: Latest development in microalgae-biofuel production with nano-additives

Nano-additives Conversion processes Conversion efficiency References
Calcium oxide nano-particles’ blends (CaO-NPs) Catalytic transesterification 91% [18]
Mesoporous silica nano-catalyst, Ti-loaded SBA-15 Transesterification 10 times higher yield than other catalysts
3 times higher than other effective nano-catalysts TS-1 and TiO2–S
[6, 69]
Niobia (N2O5) incorporated with SBA-15 Esterification Significant increase of biodiesel yield [71]
PAN nanofibre, Fe3O4 and nanoporous gold incorporation, silica nano-particles, ferric silica and magnetic nano-particles incorporation, polyacrylonitrile nano fibre transesterification process Transesterification Effective rise in biodiesel productivity [7]
KF/CaO–Fe3O4, Li(lithium)-doped CaO, Fe2O3–CaO, sulfate (SO4) incorporated Zi (zirconium), sodium titanate and carbon-based nano-tubes and nano-particles Transesterification ≥ 95% [7, 72]