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Table 6 Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of thermal degradation of MA, SWD, MD-1, MD-2, and MD-3 under the heating rate (β) 15 °C min−1

From: Thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis to discern synergy during the co-pyrolysis of microalgae and swine manure digestate

Material Parameter/conversion Activation energy, Eα (kJ mol−1) Pre-exponential factor, A (s−1) Enthalpy, ∆H (kJ mol−1) Gibbs free energy, °∆G (kJ mol−1) Entropy, °∆S (J mol−1)
MA 0.10 155.6 7.19 × 1010 155.6 185.1 − 50.37
0.15 167.2 8.91 × 1010 164.3 192.9 − 48.76
0.20 170.1 1.09 × 1011 165.6 193.3 − 47.23
0.25 172.8 3.65 × 1011 167.6 189.4 − 37.24
0.30 165.8 6.41 × 1011 160.1 179.2 − 32.63
0.35 162.9 1.12 × 1012 156.9 173.4 − 28.04
0.40 158.9 3.41 × 1012 152.6 163.6 − 18.88
0.45 157.1 1.22 × 1013 152.7 157.6 − 8.37
0.50 153.3 1.28 × 1013 146.5 151.2 − 8.05
0.55 148.4 2.13 × 1013 141.1 143.4 − 3.85
0.60 146.0 3.04 × 1013 138.4 139.0 − 1.00
0.65 143.6 5.86 × 1013 135.7 133.2 4.35
0.70 138.2 1.38 × 1014 129.9 123.2 11.32
0.75 137.5 1.84 × 1014 128.8 120.9 13.55
0.80 136.8 2.84 × 1014 127.7 117.8 16.95
SWD 0.10 206.1 4.08 × 1018 203.5 144.2 98.21
0.15 216.3 4.05 × 1019 213.8 143.1 117.1
0.20 215.7 3.44 × 1019 213.0 143.2 115.6
0.25 216.6 4.03 × 1019 213.6 143.1 116.7
0.30 212.0 1.36 × 1019 208.6 143.6 107.6
0.35 213,0 1.65 × 1019 209.4 143.5 109.1
0.40 215.2 2.71 × 1019 211.6 143.3 113.1
0.45 213.5 1.78 × 1019 209.6 143.5 109.5
0.50 222.7 1.45 × 1020 219.2 142.5 126.9
0.55 211.7 1.43 × 1019 208.5 143.6 107.5
0.60 204.3 3.72 × 1018 202.4 144.2 96.20
0.65 185.9 9.91 × 1016 185.7 145.9 65.93
0.70 178.5 2.55 × 1016 179.4 146.5 54.43
0.75 189.9 4.15 × 1017 192.0 145.2 77.36
0.80 195.3 1.4 × 1018 197.3 144.7 87.15
MD-1 0.10 139.1 5.2 × 1011 134.6 154.6 − 33.88
0.15 143.0 1.17 × 1012 138.4 154.6 − 27.34
0.20 176.5 1.13 × 1014 171.8 165.6 10.53
0.25 180.6 1.78 × 1014 175.9 167.5 14.22
0.30 176.6 4.22 × 1014 171.9 159.2 21.31
0.35 174.3 5.19 × 1014 169.5 156.0 22.93
0.40 172.7 6.41 × 1014 167.8 153.3 24.61
0.45 171.9 7.61 × 1014 167.0 151.6 25.96
0.50 168.1 1.3 × 1015 163.2 145.2 30.34
0.55 166.2 1.32 × 1015 161.2 143.2 30.34
0.60 174.1 3.23 × 1015 169.1 146.7 37.73
0.65 196.0 6.41 × 1016 190.8 153.8 62.47
0.70 192.8 8.03 × 1016 187.7 149.6 64.18
0.75 197.8 2.73 × 1017 192.5 148.6 74.13
0.80 211.2 5.53 × 1018 205.7 147.1 98.83
MD-2 0.10 161.6 1.33 × 1012 157.1 172.5 − 26.08
0.15 173.8 2.42 × 1012 169.2 181.8 − 21.41
0.20 179.1 5.23 × 1012 174.5 183.3 − 15.10
0.25 182.7 3.3 × 1013 178.0 177.9 0.21
0.30 186.5 1.03 × 1014 181.7 176.1 9.65
0.35 189.8 2.93 × 1014 185.0 174.3 18.33
0.40 173.5 3.85 × 1014 168.6 156.6 20.56
0.45 163.7 2.08 × 1015 158.8 138.6 34.61
0.50 152.1 3.1 × 1015 147.1 124.9 37.86
0.55 150.0 4.49 × 1015 145.0 121.0 40.88
0.60 157.8 7.25 × 1015 152.8 126.5 44.80
0.65 174.2 8.62 × 1015 169.1 142.1 46.15
0.70 199.0 1.12 × 1016 193.8 165.6 48.21
0.75 211.4 5.76 × 1016 206.1 169.9 61.69
0.80 229.5 1.43 × 1018 224.0 172.2 88.32
MD-3 0.10 158.0 4.45 × 1012 153.4 162.8 − 16.06
0.15 159.0 1.13 × 1013 154.2 159.2 − 8.51
0.20 161.0 1.31 × 1013 156,0 160.3 − 7.35
0.25 162.0 1.90 × 1013 157.3 159.9 − 4.40
0.30 165.6 2.52 × 1013 160.8 162.1 − 2.10
0.35 170.6 5.39 × 1013 165.8 163.4 4.13
0.40 173.9 1.59 × 1014 169.0 161.4 13.08
0.45 178.3 3.2 × 1014 173.4 162.3 18.81
0.50 184.2 8.21 × 1014 179.3 163.6 26.56
0.55 192.6 9.03 × 1014 187.64 171.6 27.27
0.60 189.7 2.94 × 1015 184.7 163.0 36.99
0.65 186.2 6.46 × 1015 181.1 155.6 43.44
0.70 184.4 6.76 × 1015 179.3 153.6 43.68
0.75 173.0 1.16 × 1016 167.7 139.6 48.01
0.80 146.5 1.87 × 1016 141.1 110.7 51.73