Skip to main content


Table 3 Engineering strategies to improve butanol tolerance of E. coli

From: Enhancing butanol tolerance of Escherichia coli reveals hydrophobic interaction of multi-tasking chaperone SecB

Entry Strategy Maximum butanol concentration (v/v) Function or mechanism References
1 Overexpression of CRP variants 1.2% butanol Global transcription factor, 308 genes with > 2.0-fold difference in expression level [38, 39]
2 Overexpression of groESL 1.0% butanol Folding both nascent and misfolded proteins [25]
3 Overexpression of OmpC-TMT 1.5% butanol Scavenging of intracellular and extracellular free radicals [40]
4 Knockout of lon and proV 2.0% butanol High expression of AcrAB–TolC pump [19]
5 Overexpression of acrBI466F/M355L/S880P 25% increase at 0.7% butanol Promoting secretion of butanol from the cell [15]
6 Overexpression of ATF, fabD, feoA and srpABC 2.0% butanol Synergistic effect of artificial transcription factor, fatty acid synthesis, iron-uptaking protein FeoA, efflux pump SrpABC from Pseudomonas putida [41]
7 Overexpression of rpoD 2.0% butanol Global transcription factor, 197 upregulated genes and 132 downregulated genes [20]
8 Overexpression of secBT10A 1.8% butanol (5.3-fold improvement in T at 1.2% butanol) Exporting nascent unfolded protein, improved binding affinity of substrate proteins This study