Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 1 Summary of main challenges and solutions for fermentative butanol production

From: Butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: revisiting fermentation performance indicators with exploratory data analysis

Challenge Suggested solution
High substrate cost Lignocellulosic substrates [3, 12,13,14,15, 18, 23, 29, 31,32,33,34,35]
Starch based waste [12, 29, 33]
Syngas [12, 23, 24, 33, 35]
Macroalgae [12, 16, 23]
Crude glycerol [12, 23, 24, 31]
Protein waste [23]
Whey permeate [14, 29, 34]
Economical feedstock processing methods [3, 18, 29]
Medium optimization [18, 28]
Inulin [31]
Low butanol selectivity Metabolic engineering for disruption of the pathway for acetone [3, 13,14,15, 23, 25, 27, 32, 34]
Homo-butanol fermentation via chemical mutagenesis and metabolic engineering [23, 24, 33, 35]
Conversion of acetone into isopropanol [13, 15, 23]
Decoupling sporulation from solventogenesis [3, 13, 14, 23, 25, 27, 28, 34, 35]
Low butanol titer Metabolic engineering and mutagenesis for higher butanol tolerance [13,14,15, 21, 23,24,25, 27, 28, 32,33,34,35]
In situ product removal [3, 12,13,14,15, 18, 22, 23, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35]
Introducing butanol pathways in other hosts [3, 13, 15, 21, 23,24,25, 27, 33,34,35]
Re-enforcing hot channel for butanol formation [14]
Low butanol yield Simultaneous utilization of mixed sugars in the hydrolysate without Carbon Catabolite Repression [14, 23, 31]
Extending the substrate utilization range [15, 34, 35]
Low butanol productivity Simultaneous utilization of mixed sugars without Carbon Catabolite Repression [3, 23, 28, 29]
Fed-batch fermentation [3, 12, 14, 18, 34]
Chemostat/continuous culturing [3, 12,13,14,15, 18, 32, 34]
Immobilized cell chemostat [3, 12,13,14,15, 18, 34]
Cell recycle chemostat [3, 12,13,14,15, 18, 34]
Multi stage chemostat [3, 13, 14, 18]
Low O2 tolerance Co-culturing to maintain anaerobic conditions [32]
Random mutagenesis and selection [13, 35]
Metabolic engineering [27, 36]
Culture degeneration Prevention of excessive acidification of the culture [35]
Phage contamination Good factory hygiene, strains immune to specific phages [27, 35]