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Table 1 Enzymes expressed and characterized in T. reesei for the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose, grouped according to their functionality.

From: The influence of feedstock characteristics on enzyme production in Trichoderma reesei: a review on productivity, gene regulation and secretion profiles

Group Functionality Enzymes in T. reesei EC
Enzymes for the degradation of hemicellulose
 Backbone cleaving enzymes Degradation of the xylan backbone in arabinoxylan (hardwood) and arabinoglucoronoxylan (grasses) by endo- and exo-xylanases Endo-β-1,4-xylanase
Xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase
Degradation of the mannan backbone in galactoglucomannan (softwood) by endo- and exo-mannanases Endo-1,4-β-mannosidase
 Side-chain cleaving hydrolytic enzymes Cleaving off galactose moieties from galactoglucomannan (softwood) α-Galactosidase
Cleaving off arabinose moieties from arabinoxylan (hardwood) and arabinoglucoronoxylan (grasses) α-l-Arabinofuranosidase
Cleaving off glucoronic moieties from arabinoxylan (hardwood) and arabinoglucoronoxylan (grasses) α-Glucuronidase
 Side chain cleaving esterases Cleaving off acetyl groups from glucuronoxylan (hardwood), arabinoglucoronoxylan (grasses), and galactoglucomannan (softwood) Acetyl xylan esterase
Cleaving ester linkage between arabinose in hemicellulose and ferulic acid in lignin Acetyl esterase
Enzymes for degradation of cellulose
 Concerted action of exo- and endo-cellulases and β-glucosidase Endo-β-1,4-glucanase
 Auxiliary activities Cleavage of cellulose chains by oxidation of C1 or C4 Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases
 Non-hydrolytic proteins High binding affinity for hemicellulose and cellulose, unknown role in biomass degradation Swollenin