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Table 5 Comparison of LCA results between algae biodiesel and conventional or first-generation biodiesels

From: Optimal integration of microalgae production with photovoltaic panels: environmental impacts and energy balance

Impact category Algae biodiesel in comparison to:
Conventional fossil Diesel Palmtree Biodiesel Rapeseed Biodiesel Soybean Biodiesel
Ozone depletion +
Human toxicity + + +
Photochemical oxidation formation
Particulate matter formation +
Terrestrial Acidification +
Freshwater eutrophication + +
Marine eutrophication
Ionizing radiation +
Water depletion + + + +
Metal resources depletion + + +
Fossil resources depletion + +
Natural land transformation
Agricultural land occupation +
Urban land occupation
Terrestrial ecotoxicity +
Freshwater ecotoxicity + +
Marine ecotoxicity + + +
  1. Impact reduction for algae biodiesel; + impact increase for algae biodiesel
  2. Impact reduction or increase for algae biodiesel, depending on the percentage of photovoltaic panel coverture