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Table 1 Effect of phenolic acids on the growth and fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae

From: Physiological mechanism of improved tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to lignin-derived phenolic acids in lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation by short-term adaptation

Phenolic acidsConcentration (g/L)μbmax (h−1)GIb (%)Lag phase (h)Ybx/s (g/g)Qglucose (g/L/h)QEtOH (g/L/h)YEtOH (%)
Vanillic acid00.38030.243.031.3784.34
0.330.357.7830.213.071.2581.17
0.750.366.6430.192.681.1380.80
1.50.3313.9930.162.470.8884.65
2.250.1853.6090.111.150.5180.55
3.00.0099.55150.030.780.2461.14
p-hydroxybenzoic acid00.37030.253.001.2782.79
2.00.365.4830.203.071.2378.01
2.50.3312.2030.183.001.2580.36
3.00.3021.6330.172.020.8279.29
4.00.2045.8890.141.170.5082.62
5.00100150.020.750.1949.02
Syringic acid00.38030.262.871.2685.96
0.250.366.0130.262.801.2386.25
0.50.365.0530.232.621.1784.62
1.00.3411.1930.222.450.8286.48
1.50.3020.9830.202.400.6183.11
2.00.2729.0330.182.230.6387.77
V–H–Sa00.37030.262.821.2786.06
0.5–0.3–0.250.339.8330.252.821.0975.76
1.0–0.6–0.50.2338.7730.201.921.0571.06
1.5–0.9–0.750.1657.3990.080.720.2259.62
2.0–1.2–1.00100150.030.100.0821.36
2.5–1.5–1.250100240.02000
  1. aV–H–S represented the cocktail of vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and syringic acid
  2. bμmax and Yx/s represented the maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield during initial 15 h, respectively; GI is the growth inhibition rate
  3. cYEtOH was the ratio of maximum ethanol concentration to the theoretical ethanol from the total glucose in the medium within 24 h of culture period