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Table 5 GHG emission comparison of biocrude and refined biocrude after upgrading (g CO2eq/GJ HHV)

From: Potential yields and emission reductions of biojet fuels produced via hydrotreatment of biocrudes produced through direct thermochemical liquefaction

 Fossil jet fuelFast pyrolysis biocrudeCatalytic pyrolysis biocrudeHTL biocrude
Crude oilCanmetPNNLCanmetPNNLCanmetPNNL
Fuel dispensing91959594949796
Fuel distribution and storage642626626636636615652
Fuel production638393,64051,61785,32428,46773,42130,463
Feedstock transmission78318638925196544623972454
Feedstock recovery5647378946297484784331563230
Feedstock upgrading4720246130064505472211,68611,961
Land-use changes, cultivation210121423241010
Fertilizer manufacture0000000
Gas leaks and flares2280000000
CO2, H2S removed from NG0000000
Emissions displaced–co-products− 138− 19,425− 42,038− 14,093− 10,846− 9171− 7603
Fuel production19,91384,38421,84189,17036,38682,21141,263
Fuel use67,637626626626626626626
Total (g CO2 eq/GJ)87,55085,01022,46789,79637,02782,83742,889
% change − 2.9− 74.32.6− 57.7− 5.4− 51.0