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Table 6 Summary of upgrading three biocrudes via two approaches

From: Potential yields and emission reductions of biojet fuels produced via hydrotreatment of biocrudes produced through direct thermochemical liquefaction

 Fast pyrolysis biocrudeCatalytic pyrolysis biocrudeHTL biocrude
Biocrude—oxygen content (%) (dry)35.616.514.5
Biocrude—kg wood/l biocrude1.886.553.05
Biocrude—kg wood/MJ biocrude0.0870.2030.085
Total yield of biocrude and upgrading (wt%)231912112627
Potential emission reduction refined biocrude (%)− 2.9− 74.32.6− 57.7− 5.4− 51.0
Yield—kg wood/l refined biocrude4.
Hydrogen consumption kg/l refined biocrude0.1800.1630.1150.0910.070.101
Remaining oxygen in refined biocrude wt%< 0.012.420.13
Higher heating value (HHV) refined biocrude (MJ/l)37.7237.4638.3935.5736.2439.40
Jet fraction (%)20.024.732.836.629.822.9