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Table 2 Frequencies of shooting, rooting, and viable plant regeneration (mean ± SD) from three replicated experiments starting from 100 micro-calli per line

From: Embryogenic cell suspensions for high-capacity genetic transformation and regeneration of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

 Shooting efficiency (%)Rooting efficiency (%)Plants regenerated (%)
Regeneration efficiencies of plantlets from calli
 Transgenic P3273.75 ± 2.92cd69.15 ± 1.35de81 ± 4.88bc
 Non-transgenic P3279 ± 3.51bc74.05 ± 2.35cd85.5 ± 1.42b
 Transgenic P60562.25 ± 1.15e58.75 ± 0.76e60.25 ± 1.73de
 Non-transgenic P60571.67 ± 1.73cd66.25 ± 2.41de75.13 ± 2.00c
Regeneration efficiencies of plantlets from cell suspension cultures
 Transgenic P32100 ± 00a91.5 ± 2.11a100 ± 00a
 Non-transgenic P32100 ± 00a93.5 ± 3.75a99.23 ± 0.43a
 Transgenic P605100 ± 00a85 ± 2.89b95.28 ± 1.86a
 Non-transgenic P605100 ± 00a88.5 ± 0.82b97.78 ± 1.30a
  1. After shooting, the rooting percentage represents the frequency of shoots that produced root systems. After rooting, the percentage of regenerated plants represents the frequency of the rooted shoots that survived to make viable plants in pots. Different letters denote a statistically significant difference among means at a p value < 0.05 according to a 2-way ANOVA (Tukey’s test)