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Table 1 A selection of challenges for successful implementation of biorefineries

From: Pretreatment for biorefineries: a review of common methods for efficient utilisation of lignocellulosic materials

Scale-up to industrial scaleRequires significant capital investment
Requires strong financial incentive
Investors find too low return on investment
Future situation unclearLaws and regulations not clear
Construction and designDelays in erection of plant
Testing of equipment
Biomass availabilityAll-year round supply of suitable materials
Possibility to run on more than one material
Logistics and supplyStorage and transportation must be reliable
Data for process designTransfer of smaller-scale data to industrial scale
Maturity of a processHandling at high pressures and feeding, e.g. for 2G plants of ethanol causes production stop