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Table 3 Selected steam pretreatment results using various lignocellulosic materials

From: Pretreatment for biorefineries: a review of common methods for efficient utilisation of lignocellulosic materials

BiomassCatalyst/procedureT, °Ct, minMain product(s)Yield(s)Refs.
Alpine hayNo catalyst160–2205–15Glucose, biogasGlucose: 90%
Biogas: 469 LN
Poplar woodMechanical refining + STEX
Neutral sulphonation
Sulphonated lignin
Carbohydrates: 81%[68]
Hybrid poplar4.5% (w/w) SO21954.5Ethanol prod. for evaluation of modified lignin content15% improvement in ethanol for low-lignin content breeds[12]
Sugar cane bagassePre-soaking in reverse osmosis water185–21510–1516 g/100 g DM (whole slurry)Max combined carbohydrate yield: 65%[69]
Corn cob0.5% H2SO4 (12 h)18010Lignin57.3% (purity 99%)[70]
Wheat straw1% acetic acid19010Ethanol0.32 g/g (of glucose and xylose)[71]
Agave bagasseNo catalyst142–1792.8–22BiogasBM: 0.290 LN gCOD −1[72]
Rice strawMoisture content 0–70%160–2051–10BiogasIncrease in production rates up 2.4 time untreated straw[73]
SwitchgrassHydrated with water to 30% DM170–2005–15GlucoseAfter EH: 88.3%[74]
Sesame seedSoaked in water (12 h)212 (2 MPa)
180 (1 MPa)
10 s
30 s
Lipid extraction45% (treated)
38% (untreated)
Barley strawNo catalyst18030Ethanol50 g L−1
(99% cellulose recovery; 82% hemicelluloses after STEX)
Wheat straw/corn stover (mixed)Soaking 0.2% H2SO41905Ethanol> 50 g L−1
Overall yield 74–78%