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Table 6 A selection of fractionation methods for of various lignocellulosic materials utilising ionic liquids

From: Pretreatment for biorefineries: a review of common methods for efficient utilisation of lignocellulosic materials

BiomassILt (h)T (°C)Main product(s)Yield(s)Refs.
Bleached birch kraft pulp[Emim][OAc]
[Emim][DMP]
[Emim][Cl]
[mDBN][DMP]
[DBN][OAc]
[DBN][EtCOOH]
360Pulp2.37a; 2.40b
1.28a; 1.44b
1.99a; 1.35b
3.56a; 2.82b
6.56a; 1.18b
6.94a; 4.35b
[139]
Switchgrass[C2mim][OAc]
[FurEt2NH][H2PO4]c
[VanEt2NH][H2PO4]
[p-AnisEt2NH][H2PO4]
  Glucose
Xylose
90–95
70–75
[164]
Oak sawdust
Spruce sawdust
Cotton fibre
[C2mim][OAc]40 min110Glucose67–79
66–73
[153]
Southern yellow pine[C2mim][OAc]  Holocellulose/lignin59/31[145]
a) Triticale
b) Wheat straw
c) Flax shives
1. [Emim][OAc]
2. [Bmim][Cl]
3. DMEAF
4. DMEAA
5. DMEAG
6. DMEAS
0.5–2470–150Lignin
Glucose
For a) & 1:
Lignin: 52.7%
Glucose: >95
[161]
Pine1. [HBim][HSO4]
2. [TEA][HSO4]
3. [DMBA[HSO4]
0.5–8120–170Lignin
Glucose
For 3:
Lignin: 70
Glucose: 75%
[165]
Rice straw1. [C2mim][Cl]
2. [C2mim][Cl/water]
3. [C2mim][Cl/K2CO3]
1110Lignin
Glucose
For 3:
Lignin: 93.7
Glucose: 92.1
[148]
Cotton-based waste textiles[Amim][Cl]0.5–15090–130Bacterial cellulose10.8 g L−1 of nano-cellulose fibres[143]
Wheat straw[Emim][DEP]10–120 min25–150Reducing sugars (RS)RS: 54.8 g g DM−1
[@130°, 30 min)
[166]
  1. aResidual xylan
  2. bDissolved cellulose
  3. cThe ILs utilised in [164] were synthesised from aromatic aldehydes derived from the major by-products of biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials: furfural, vanillin and p-anisaldehyde