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Table 7 A selection of DESs utilised for biomass fractionation

From: Pretreatment for biorefineries: a review of common methods for efficient utilisation of lignocellulosic materials

BiomassDESt (h)T (°C)Main product(s)Yield(s)Refs.
Lettuce leavesChCl:glycerol3–1680–150Bio-butanolGlucose: 94.9%; xylose: 75% @150°, 16 h[176]
Corn stover1. ChCl:formic acid
2. ChCl:urea
3. ChCl:glycerol
4. ChCl:acetic acid
5. ChCL:oxalic acid
6. ChCl:malonic acid
7. ChCl:citric acid
0.5–390–130Bio-butanolFor 1:
Glucose: 99% (17 g L−1)
Butanol: 5.6 g L−1 (0.17 g g−1 sugar)
[177]
Willow1. ChCl:lactic acid
2. ChCl:glycerol
3. ChCl:urea
6–4290–120LigninFor 1:
Purity: 94.5%
Yield: 91.8%
[173]
Switchgrass1. GH-PG-PTSAa
2. GH-EG-PTSAa
3. GH-GLY-PTSAa
4. ChCl-PG-PTSAa
5. ChCl-EG-PTSAa
6. ChCl-GLY-PTSAa
7. GH-Eg-PTSAb
8. ChClEG-PTSAb
9. GH-EG-PTSAc
10. ChCl-EG-PTSAc
0.1 Fractionation:
Cellulose
Xylan
Lignin
Highest removal for 2:
Cellulose: 0.70
Xylan: 79.4
Lignin: 82.1
@6 min, 120 °C
[172]
Corncob1. ChCl:glycerol
2. ChCl:lactic acid
3. ChCl:glycolic acid
4. ChCl:levulinic acid
5. ChCl:malonic acid
6. CHCl:glutaric acid
7. ChCl:oxalic acid
8. ChCl:ethylene glycol
9. ChCl:glycerol
2490Lignin
Glucose
For 1:
Lignin: 71.3%
Glucose: 96.4%
(after EH)
[178]
Potato peels1. ChCl:glycerol
2. ChCl:ethylene glycol
360–150Lignin
Glucose
For 1:
Removal of lignin: 33%
Glucose yield: 0.80 g/g glucan
@150 °C
[179]
Apple residues1. ChCl:glycerol
2. ChCl:ethylene glycol
360–150Lignin
Glucose
For 1:
Removal of lignin: 62%
Glucose yield: 0.95 g/g glucan
@150 °C
[179]
Rice straw1. ChCl:malic acid
2. ChCl:citric acid
3. ChCl:tartaric acid
4. ChCl:lactic acid
5. ChCl:oxalic acid
6. ChCl:malonic acid
7. ChCl:ethylene glycol
8. ChCl:1,2 propane diol
9: ChCl:urea
10. ChCl:glycerol
0.5–1260–121Lignin
Glucose
Ethanol
For 4:
Lignin removal: 57.2%
10. Glucose yield: 87.1%
10. Ethanol yield: 89.5%
[180]
Spruce saw dust1. ChCl:boric acid
2. ChCl:glycerol
3. Betaine:glycerol
2480Glucose< 20% after EH[181]
  1. a 10% solids
  2. b 30% solids
  3. c 35% solids