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Table 2 Biomass and lipid production of Y. lipolytica with 50 g/L of propionic acid, butyric acid and mixed VFAs as carbon source at different pH conditions

From: Enhanced lipid production by Yarrowia lipolytica cultured with synthetic and waste-derived high-content volatile fatty acids under alkaline conditions

Carbon source and initial pHBiomass (g/L)Lipid conc. (g/L)Lipid content (wt%)YX/S (g/g)YL/S (g/g)Lag phase (day)
50 g/L of propionic acid
 pH = 6N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.
 pH = 715.99 ± 0.923.83 ± 0.2123.96 ± 1.340.320 ± 0.0180.077 ± 0.0041–2
 pH = 818.11 ± 0.874.48 ± 0.3424.73 ± 1.200.362 ± 0.0170.090 ± 0.0070a
 pH = 917.26 ± 1.014.33 ± 0.3525.06 ± 1.470.345 ± 0.0200.087 ± 0.0070–1
 pH = 109.67 ± 0.691.58 ± 0.1616.33 ± 1.330.193 ± 0.0140.032 ± 0.0032–3
50 g/L of butyric acid
 pH = 6N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.N.D.
 pH = 725.45 ± 1.106.53 ± 0.2425.65 ± 1.170.509 ± 0.0220.131 ± 0.0051–3
 pH = 828.52 ± 1.287.22 ± 0.2725.32 ± 1.200.570 ± 0.0260.144 ± 0.0050
 pH = 928.92 ± 1.287.92 ± 0.2327.39 ± 1.470.578 ± 0.0260.158 ± 0.0050
 pH = 1026.86 ± 1.437.16 ± 0.3026.67 ± 1.330.537 ± 0.0290.143 ± 0.0061–2
50 g/L of mixed VFAs (acetic: propionic: butyric acid = 5:2:3)
 pH = 616.93 ± 0.603.16 ± 0.1718.66 ± 1.300.339 ± 0.0120.063 ± 0.0032–3
 pH = 727.48 ± 1.188.32 ± 0.3330.28 ± 1.340.550 ± 0.0240.166 ± 0.0070
 pH = 827.33 ± 1.268.27 ± 0.2630.25 ± 1.130.547 ± 0.0250.165 ± 0.0050
 pH = 926.94 ± 1.308.28 ± 0.4430.72 ± 1.110.539 ± 0.0260.166 ± 0.0090
 pH = 1023.65 ± 1.295.33 ± 0.2222.53 ± 1.420.473 ± 0.0260.107 ± 0.0041–3
  1. All the results presented are the mean values ± SD for three independent replicates
  2. N.D., not detected; YX/S, growth yield coefficient, g DCW/g VFAs, YL/S, lipid yield coefficient, g lipid/g VFAs
  3. aLag phase less than 3 h was recorded as 0 day