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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 1

From: Pathway dissection, regulation, engineering and application: lessons learned from biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia

Fig. 1

(adapted from [10, 29, 123])

Simplified metabolism of biomass for microbial n-butanol fermentation by solventogenic clostridia through pretreatment process, membrane transfer process and fermentation process, especially depiction of metabolic pathways, energy conservation and the related enzymes for butanol production, in which glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway are necessary for growth on hexoses, pentoses, and syngas, respectively. Abbreviations of the different metabolites or enzymes are as follows: AAD alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase, AADC acetoacetate decarboxylase, ACDH acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ACS/CODH acetyl-CoA synthase/CO dehydrogenase, ADH alcohol dehydrogenase, AK acetate kinase, ALDC acetolactate decarboxylase, ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase, BK butyrate kinase, CAT CoA transferase, CFeSP corrinoid iron–sulfur protein, CRT crotonase, Etf electron-transferring flavoprotein, Fd ferredoxin, FDH formate dehydrogenase, FTS formyl-THF synthase, MTC methenyl-THF cyclohydrolase, MTD methylene-THF dehydrogenase, MTR methyl transferase, MTRS methylene-THF reductase, PFK-1 phosphofructokinase, PFOR pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, PGK phosphoglycerate kinase, PGM phosphoglycerate mutase, PK pyruvate kinase, PTA phosphotransacetylase, PTB phosphotransbutyrylase, THL thiolase, TPI triosephosphate isomerase

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