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Table 5 Advantages and disadvantages of in situ product recovery technologies

From: Pathway dissection, regulation, engineering and application: lessons learned from biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia

Technique Advantages Disadvantages Possible solution Refs.
Pervaporation High selectivity, not harmful to microorganisms, energy efficient, no loss of fermentation broth and nutrients Potential membrane leakage, possible membrane fouling, membrane material cost Use a larger membrane surface [146]
Liquid extraction High selectivity, energy efficient, ease of implementation Emulsion formation, toxicity of the extractant to microorganisms, extractant loss and nutrient loss, high price of ionic liquids Exploit the more excellent extractants, such as those that are cost-effective, nontoxic, and have a higher partition coefficient and thermal stability [85, 146, 250]
Gas stripping Energy efficient, low consumption of water, no fouling, easy to operate, no harm to the culture Circulation of anaerobic carrier gas, low selectivity, low efficiency Develop two-stage gas stripping to further increase the ABE yield and the selectivity [203, 248]
Adsorption Energy efficient, easy to implement, relatively high biocompatibility High price of the adsorbent, physical instability of the adsorbent, low selectivity, adsorbent regeneration Adsorbent needs to be used for a large number of cycles to make it cost-effective and efficient [221, 251, 252]
Perstraction High selectivity, low toxicity to the culture Fouling problem, emulsion formation, and material cost Hampered by the high cost of membranes and the lower permeate fluxes [221, 253]