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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 1

From: Modeling ethanol production through gas fermentation: a biothermodynamics and mass transfer-based hybrid model for microbial growth in a large-scale bubble column bioreactor

Fig. 1

Gibbs free energy generation through independent a) CO and b) H2/CO2 catabolism for ethanol production. The dashed lines indicate where \(\Delta G_{\text{cat}}^{{0^{\prime}}}\) = – 15 kJ mol−1CS. H2/CO2 catabolism is cut-off at \(\Delta G_{\text{cat}}^{{0^{\prime}}}\) = 0, where the catabolic reaction would be at equilibrium and no energy could be released from it; the white region represents the gas concentrations where the inverse reaction (H2/CO2 production from ethanol) would be spontaneous

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