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Fig. 7 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 7

From: Novel insights into salinity-induced lipogenesis and carotenogenesis in the oleaginous astaxanthin-producing alga Chromochloris zofingiensis: a multi-omics study

Fig. 7

Regulation of carotenogenesis in response to salt stress. a Transcriptional regulation of carotenogenesis. The heat map right before gene IDs illustrates gene expression changes (log2 transformed values). Significant difference (at least a twofold change and FDR adjusted pā€‰<ā€‰0.05) is indicated with an asterisk. Arrows in red, blue, and black indicate transcriptional up-, down-, and non-regulated steps, respectively. For proteins encoded by multiple copies of genes, the changes in total transcripts of the isogenes were employed for determining the overall regulation pattern. Compounds are highlighted with different colors: red, significantly higher; black, not significantly changed; gray not determined; blue, significantly lower under upon salt stress. b Time-resolved expression of selected genes determined by qPCR. AACT acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, AAT long-chain-alcohol O-fatty-acyltransferase, BKT beta-carotenoid ketolase, CDP-ME 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol, CDP-MEP 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2-phosphate, CHYb beta-carotenoid hydroxylase, CMK 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase, CMS 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CRTISO carotenoid isomerase, CYP97A cytochrome P450 beta hydroxylase, CYP97C cytochrome P450 epsilon hydroxylase, DMAPP dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, DXR 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, DXP 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate, DXS 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, FPP farnesyl diphosphate, FPPS farnesyl diphosphate synthase, GAP glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, GGPP geranylgeranyl diphosphate, GGPPS geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, GPP geranyl diphosphate, GPPS geranyl diphosphate synthase, HCS hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, HDR 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase, HDS 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, HGM-CoA 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, HMB-PP (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate, IPP isopentenyl pyrophosphate, IPPI isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase, LCYb lycopene beta cyclase, LCYe lycopene epsilon cyclase, GPP geranyl diphosphate, MCS 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase, MEcPP 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate, MEP 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate, NXS neoxanthin synthase, PDS phytoene desaturase, PSY phytoene synthase, VDE violaxanthin de-epoxidase, ZDS zeta-carotene desaturase, ZEP zeaxanthin epoxidase, ZISO zeta-carotene isomerase. See Additional file 9: Data S7 for the detailed RNA-seq data

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