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Table 1 Comparison of the up-regulated genes involved in selected pathways of C. zofingiensis between salt stress and ND conditions

From: Novel insights into salinity-induced lipogenesis and carotenogenesis in the oleaginous astaxanthin-producing alga Chromochloris zofingiensis: a multi-omics study

PathwaysSalt stressND
Acetyl-CoA productionPDHC (C), PDC, ACLPDHC (C), PDC, ACS, ACL, AK
De novo fatty acid synthesisACCase complex, ACP, MCT, KAR, HAD, ENR, KAS I, KAS II, KAS IIIACCase complex, ACP, MCT, KAR, HAD, ENR, KAS I, KAS II, KAS III
Fatty acid desaturationSAD, FAD2, FAD5, FAD6, FAD7SAD, FAD2, FAD4, FAD5, FAD6, FAD7, ∆4/∆6FAD
Membrane lipid turnoverPGD1PGD1
G3P and acyl-CoA productionGK, GPDH (cyto), FAT, LCAS (C)GK, GPDH (cyto), FAT, LCAS (C)
TAG assemblyGPAT2 (ER), LPAAT1 (C), PAP3 (ER), DGTT5, PDATGPAT2 (ER), LPAAT1, 2 (C, ER), PAP1 (C), DGAT1, DGTT (1, 5-8)
Carotenoid synthesisLCYb, BKT1LCYb, BKT1, BKT2, CHYb, AAT
NADPH productionFNR, G6PD, 6PGD, MDHG6PD, 6PGD, ME
Energy productionPK (cyto; ATP), GAPDH (NADH), IDH (NADH), OGDH (NADH)PK (C, cyto; ATP), GAPDH (NADH), SCS (ATP), IDH (NADH), OGDH (NADH)
  1. The gene expression data for C. zofingiensis under ND conditions were retrieved from Liu et al. [15]. Cut-off for up-regulation: fold change > 2 and adjusted p < 0.05. Subcellular localization information: cyto cytosol, C chloroplast, ER endoplasmic reticulum, M mitochondria. AAT long-chain-alcohol O-fatty-acyltransferase, ACCase acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACP acyl carrier protein, ACS acetyl-CoA synthetase, AK acetate kinase, ATL ATP-citrate lyase, DGAT diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase type I, DGTT diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase type II, ENR enoyl-ACP reductase, FAD fatty acid desaturase, FAT acyl-ACP thioesterase, FNR ferredoxin NADP reductase, GK glycerol kinase, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GPAT glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, G6PD glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, 6PGD 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, GPDH glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HAD 3-ketoacyl-ACP dehydratase, IDH isocitrate dehydrogenase, KAR 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, KAS 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, LCAS long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, LPAAT 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, MCT malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase, ME malic enzyme, MDH malate dehydrogenase, OGDH 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, PAP phosphatidate phosphatase, PDAT phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, PDC pyruvate decarboxylase, PDHC pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, PGD1 plastid galactoglycerolipid degradation 1, PK pyruvate kinase, SAD stearoyl-ACP desaturase, SCS succinyl-CoA synthetase