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Table 10 Chi-square test p values between sociodemographic ordinal variables (Appendix A: Table 4) and opinion nominal variables (Appendix A: Table 7)

From: Acceptability of genetically engineered algae biofuels in Europe: opinions of experts and stakeholders

Sociodemographic ordinal variablesOpinion nominal variablesp valueCramer’s V
AgePersonal attitude as final consumer
Opinion about being final consumer of GE algae biofuel0.422 
Willingness to pay more money if higher engine performances were achieved compared to established biofuels0.512 
Willingness to pay more money if environmental advantages were achieved compared to fossil fuels0.724 
Suggestions to improve general social acceptance
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.152 
Higher or same economic benefits than using fossil fuels0.985 
Clear evidence of benefits use of genetic markers0.771 
Clear communication of risks and benefits of genome engineering technologies0.372 
Rigorous risk assessments of GM algae, involving scientists with minimal conflicts of interest, independent peer review, and public participation0.485 
Closed production systems with high security standards0.0410.221
Use of genetic markers0.914 
Minor survivability compared to natural strains0.945 
Use of new precise gene editing tools instead of traditional genome engineering0.0440.220
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.180 
Educational levelPersonal attitude as final consumer
Opinion about being final consumer of GE algae biofuel0.0370.251
Willingness to pay more money if higher engine performances were achieved compared to established biofuels0.580 
Willingness to pay more money if environmental advantages were achieved compared to fossil fuels0.651 
Suggestions to improve general social acceptance
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.565 
Higher or same economic benefits than using fossil fuels0.188 
Clear evidence of benefits use of genetic markers0.325 
Clear communication of risks and benefits of genome engineering technologies0.0040.346
Rigorous risk assessments of GM algae, involving scientists with minimal conflicts of interest, independent peer review, and public participation0.662 
Closed production systems with high security standards0.467 
Use of genetic markers0.915 
Minor survivability compared to natural strains0.045 
Use of new precise gene editing tools instead of traditional genome engineering0.855 
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.184 
Experience in algae industryPersonal attitude as final consumer
Opinion about being final consumer of GE algae biofuel0.0240.236
Willingness to pay more money if higher engine performances were achieved compared to established biofuels0.078
Willingness to pay more money if environmental advantages were achieved compared to fossil fuels0.458
Suggestions to improve general social acceptance
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.912 
Higher or same economic benefits than using fossil fuels0.988 
Clear evidence of benefits use of genetic markers0.339 
Clear communication of risks and benefits of genome engineering technologies0.822 
Rigorous risk assessments of GM algae, involving scientists with minimal conflicts of interest, independent peer review, and public participation0.562 
Closed production systems with high security standards0.412 
Use of genetic markers0.672 
Minor survivability compared to natural strains0.734 
Use of new precise gene editing tools instead of traditional genome engineering0.353 
Regulations before any genome engineered species is implemented0.749 
  1. Cramer’s V values were calculated just in cases where p values < 0.05