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Table 11 Chi-square test p values between sociodemographic nominal variables (Appendix A: Table 6) and opinion ordinal values (Appendix A: Table 6)

From: Acceptability of genetically engineered algae biofuels in Europe: opinions of experts and stakeholders

Sociodemographic nominal variablesOpinion ordinal variablesp valueCramer’s V
GenderExpected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to established biofuels
Less environmental impact0.281 
Reduced GHG emissions and climate change0.492 
No competition with food0.773 
Superior engine performance0.778 
New rural jobs0.866 
Reduced fuel import dependency0.973 
Expected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to fossil fuels
Less environmental impact0.412 
Reduced GHG emissions and climate change0.800 
Less occupational risk0.639 
New rural jobs0.302 
Reduced fuel import dependency0.143 
Expected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to natural strains
Improve productivity0.299 
Require less energy0.413 
Need less nutrients uptake0.408 
Need less use of fresh water0.863 
Improve the controllability of the process0.920 
Improve economic feasibility0.686 
GMOs should partially replace fossil fuels0.382 
Perceptions of social acceptance of GE algae biofuel
Opinion about general social acceptance0.129 
Variation of public acceptance in case of using gene-editing techniques0.177 
Opinion about regulating gene-edited organisms as GMOs0.256 
General risk perception of fuels/power sources
Fossil fuels0.770 
Established biofuels0.144 
GE algae biofuel0.536 
Solar photovoltaic power0.358 
Wind power0.887 
Hydropower0.0340.285
Working fieldExpected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to established biofuels
Less environmental impact0.926 
Reduced GHG emissions and climate change0.993 
No competition with food0.0110.246
Superior engine performance0.822 
New rural jobs0.132 
Reduced fuel import dependency0.443 
Expected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to fossil fuels
Less environmental impact0.750 
Reduced GHG emissions and climate change0.981 
Less occupational risk0.200 
New rural jobs0.802 
Reduced fuel import dependency0.786 
Expected benefits of GE algae biofuel compared to natural strains
Improve productivity0.276 
Require less energy0.0160.242
Need less nutrients uptake0.138 
Need less use of fresh water0.286 
Improve the controllability of the process0.0500.225
Improve economic feasibility0.138 
GMOs should partially replace fossil fuels0.634 
Perceptions of social acceptance of GE algae biofuel
Opinion about general social acceptance0.843 
Variation of public acceptance in case of using gene-editing techniques0.720 
Opinion about regulating gene-edited organisms as GMOs0.0240.236
General risk perception of fuels/power sources
Fossil fuels0.0220.237
Established biofuels0.238 
GE algae biofuel0.126 
Solar photovoltaic power0.0560.230
Wind power0.0020.267
Hydropower0.427 
  1. Cramer’s V values were calculated only in cases where p values < 0.05