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Table 1 Summary of key examples of materials applied to immobilisation of phototrophic bacteria

From: Transparent polyvinyl-alcohol cryogel as immobilisation matrix for continuous biohydrogen production by phototrophic bacteria

Matrix material Organism immobilised Biocompatibility Transparency Diffusion resistance Mechanical stability Chemical stability Refs
Alginate Rhodopseudomonas palustris
Photosynthetic consortium
Chlorobium thiosulfatophiluma
Good Good Good Poor Poor [6,7,8,9]
Agar Rhodopseudomonas palustris Fair–good Good Fair Poor Poor [6, 10, 11]
Polyacrylamide Rhodospirillum rubrum Poor Good Fair–good Good Good [12, 13]
Carrageenan Rhodopseudomonas capsulata
Rhodospirillum rubrum
Rhodopseudomonas palustris
Fair–good Good Good Poor Poor [6, 13, 14]
Chitosan Rhodobacter sphaeroides Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair [15]
Boric acid crosslinked PVA Rhodopseudomonas palustris
Rhodobacter sphaeroides
Poor–fair Good Good Good Good [16, 17]
PVA cryogel Various; non-photosynthetic Fair–goodb Poor Good Good–excellentb Excellent [18,19,20,21]
PVA–glycerol cryogel Rhodopseudomonas palustris Good Good Good Excellent Excellent [22] This study
  1. aNon-PNSB (phototrophic green sulfur bacterium)
  2. bDepending on number of freeze–thaw cycles used to form hydrogel