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Table 1 Description of enzymes and corresponding genes implicated in microbial assimilation of lignocellulosic sugars

From: Engineering microbial pathways for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars: current status and perspectives

Pathway Enzyme name Enzyme abbreviation Gene name Specific constant kcat/Km (s−1 M−1) [substrat] Microbial origin Reference
Pentose oxido-reductive pathway d-Xylose reductase XR XYL1
xyrA
na
na
P. stipitis
A. niger
[32]
Xylitol dehydrogenase XDH xdh1
XYL2
na
na
Filamentous fungi
S. cerevisiae
[136]
[137]
d-Xylulokinase XK xylB 879 103 [xylulose] E. coli [138]
XKS1
xkiA
XYL3
na S. cerevisiae
Aspergillus niger
Pichia stipitis
[139]
[140]
[141]
l-Arabinose reductase AR XYL1
larA
na
na
T. reesei
Aspergilus niger
[32]
[142]
l-Arabitol 4-dehydrogenase ARDH ladA na Filamentous fungi* [33, 143]
l-Xylulose reductase (NADPH)
l-Xylulose reductase (NADH)
lXR lrx3
lxrA
ALX1
712 [l-xylulose]
47,103 [l-xylulose]
na
T. reesei
Aspergillus niger
Ambrosiozyma monospora
[144]
[145]
[146]
d-Arabinitol 2-dehydrogenase/ribulose reductase RIR ARD na Pichia stipitis
Candida tropicalis
[33]
[147]
d-Ribulokinase RIK YDR109c 80 103 [D-ribulose] S.cerevisiae, [148]
Isomerase pathway Xylose isomerase XI xylA na E. coli [149]
d-Xylulokinase XK xylB 879 103 [xylulose] E. coli [138]
l-Arabinose isomerasz AI araA na E. coli [150]
l-Ribulokinase RKI araB na E. coli [151, 152]
l-Xylulokinase XKI xylK na E. coli [108]
l-Ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase UlaE ulaE na E. coli [153]
l-Ribulose 5-P 4-epimerase RPE araD na E. coli [154]
Non-phosphorylative pathway d-Xylose dehydrogenase XylDH xylB
xylB
HVO_B0028
104 [D-Xylose]
157,103 [xylose]
Caulobacter crescenti
S.solfataricus
H. vulcanii
[46, 48, 155, 156]
d-Xylonate lactonase XAL xylC na
na
C.crescenti
H.volcanii
[48, 81]
d-Xylonate dehydratase XAD xylD
HVO B0038A
yagE/yjhG
40 103 [D-xylonate)
4 103 (D-Xylonate)
C. crescenti
H.volcanii
Escherichia coli
[48, 70, 155]
l-Arabinose 1-dehydrogenase AraDH araA 32.3 103[l-arabinose] B. multivorans [81]
l-Arabinolactonase AraL araL na B. multivorans,
S. solfataricus
[81]
l-Arabinonate dehydratase AraD araC 83 [l-arabinonate] B.multivorans
S. solfataricus
[81]
[156]
2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-xylonate dehydratase KdxD xylX 260 [2-keto-3-deoxy-D-pentanoate]
530 [2-keto-3-deoxy-D-pentanoate]
C. crescenti
B. xenovorans
[80, 81]
2-Keto-3-deoxy-l-arabinonate dehydratase KdaD araD 23 [2-keto-3-deoxy-l-arabinonate] B. xenovorans [81]
2-Ketoglutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase KGSADH xylA
ycbD
HV0_B0039
4.6 105 [α-ketoglutaric semialdehyde] A. brasilense
C. crescenti
S. solfataricus
H. valcanii
[48, 155,156,157]
2-Keto-3-deoxy-D/l-pentanoate aldolase KDPA kdxA
yagE/yjhH
450 [2-keto-3-deoxy-D-pentanoate]
7000 [pyruvate]
S. solfataricus
Escherichia coli
[47, 62]
  1. na: Not accessible