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Table 3 Yield and energy cost of bio-based chemicals according to production pathways expressed in E. coli

From: Engineering microbial pathways for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars: current status and perspectives

Bio-based products Production pathway Substrat Nbr reaction step NAD(P)H yield (mole/mole) ATP yield (mole/mole) Pathway yield (Yp)$ Yield efficiency (%)*
Ethylene glycol (EG) NP-Dahms Xylose 5 0 0 1 50
Xylulose-1-P Xylose 4 − 1 − 1 0.87 50
Ribulose-1-P Xylose 5 − 1 − 1 0.87 50
Serine pathway Glucose 13 +2 0 2 83.3
X1P (R1P) + serine pathway Xylose 7 +1 0 2 100
X1P (R1P) + serine pathway Xylose + glucose 11 +2 0 4 91
Glycolic acid (GA) CCM- (GS)$ Glucose 18 +6 +2 2 66
NP-Dahms Xylose 5 +2 0 1 40
Xylulose-1-P Xylose 4 +1 − 1 0.96 40
Ribulose-1-P Xylose 5 +1 − 1 0.96 40
NP-Dahms + GS Xylose 10 +2 (+1QH2) 0 2 80
X1P (R1P) + GS Xylose 9 + 3 + (1QH2 +1 2 80
X1P (R1P) + GS Xylose + glucose 15 +2 + (3 QH2) +3 4 73
1,4 Butanediol (BDO) CCM$ Glucose 21 0 0 1 92
NP-Weimberg Xylose 6 0 0 1 110
1,2,4 Butanetriol (BTO) CCM$ Glucose 17 0 -1 1 83
NP-KDC Xylose 5 0 0 1 100
3,4 dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) CCM Glucose 22 +3 0 1 66
NP-KDC Xylose 5 +2 0 1 80
Mesaconic acid (MSA) CCM$ Glucose 18 +3 +1 1 75
NP-Weimberg Xylose 8 +1 0 1 91
Glutaric acid (GTA) CCM$ Glucose 17 + 5.66 +1.33 1  
NP-Weimberg + XI Xylose 14 +4 0 0.66 62
  1. XI means xylose isomerase pathway
  2. $Yp is the stoichiometry pathway efficiency strictly calculated from the pathway without balancing ATP and cofactors
  3. *Yield efficiency is the ratio between the thermodynamic or energy yield and the pathway yield (Yp) as defined by [72]. The energy yield of these chemicals as produced from pentose or glucose can be found in Additional file 1: Table S4
  4. $ CCM-GS means Carbon central metabolism—glyoxylate shunt