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Table 5 Inhibitors produced in liquid fractions during the pretreatment of sorghum pith, rind and whole stem

From: Alkaline organosolv pretreatment of different sorghum stem parts for enhancing the total reducing sugar yields and p-coumaric acid release

Materials Ferulic acid (g/L) Acetic acid (g/L) Levulinic acid (g/L) Furfural (g/L) HMF (g/L)
NaOH–ethanol
 Pith 0.184 1.428 n.d. n.d. n.d.
 Rind 0.210 1.448
 Whole stem 0.204 1.490
NaOH
 Pith 0.183 1.462 n.d. n.d. n.d.
 Rind 0.194 1.487
 Whole stem 0.186 1.521
  1. NaOH–ethanol pretreatment was performed under the following conditions: 1.63% NaOH, 70% ethanol, 66 °C, 3.18 h; 1.90% NaOH, 70% ethanol, 69.8 °C, 1.00 h and 1.46% NaOH, 70% ethanol, 70 °C, 2.19 h for the pith, rind and whole stem, respectively. NaOH pretreatment was performed under the same conditions, except that 70% ethanol was not included
  2. n.d. not detected