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Table 1 Archaeal heterotrophic hyperthermophiles and characterized GHs

From: Biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolases of archaeal origin

Species* Growth range [°C] Topt [°C] Characterized GH derived from organism** Topt [°C] Tstab Genbank accession no.***
Pyrococcus furiosus [25] 70–103 100 Endoglucanase (GH12) extracellular enzyme [46]
No Genbank
100 T1/2 40 h at 95 °C WP_011011985.1 (from CAZy website)
Endoglucanase (GH16) extracellular enzyme [47] 105 100% of residual activity after incubation at 80 °C for 110 h AF013169
Amylase extracellular enzyme [44] 100 > 60% relative activity at 120 °C after incubation for 1 h n.l.
Amylase intra- and extracellular enzymes [43] 106 30% residual activity after incubation for 8 h at 98 °C n.l.
Amylase extracellular enzyme [48]   100 80% residual activity after incubation for 6 h at 100 °C U96622
Amylase intracellular enzyme [49] 100  > 80% residual activity after incubation for 2 h at 100 °C n.l.
Glucosidase intracellular enzyme [50] 102–105 T1/2 85 h at 100 °C n.l.
Glucosidase secretion n.l. [51] 100 80% residual activity after incubation for 1 h at 100 °C AF013169
Pyrococcus horikoshii [26] < 80–102 98 Endoglucanase (GH5) extracellular enzyme [52] 97 Relative activity 80% after incubation at 97 °C for 3 h AAQ31833.1 (from CAZy website)
Pyrococcus woesei [53] n.l. 100–103 Amylase extracellular enzyme [54] 100 No loss of activity after incubation at 90 °C for 6 h n.l.
Palaeococcus pacificus [55] 50–90 80 Cyclodextrinase PpCD (GH13) secretion n.l. [56] 95 > 90% relative activity after 8 h at 85 °C WP_048164969
Thermofilum pendens [57] 85–90 Up to 95 Glucosidase (GH 3) intracellular enzyme [51]   90 50% residual activity after incubation for 60 min at 95 °C YP_920894
Staphylothermus marinus [58]    n.l. 98 Amylase SMMA (GH13) secretion n.l. [59] 100 Melting point Tm 109 °C WP_011838911.1
Thermococcus chitonophagus [60] 60–93 85 Chitinase chi70 associated with outer cell membrane [61] 70 > 50% activity after incubation at 120 °C for 1 h n.l.
Thermococcus kodakarensis [62]   60–100 85 Pullulanase TK-PUL (GH13) secretion n.l. [63] 95–100 T1/2 45 min at 100 °C BAD85166.1
Saccharolobus shibatae [64] Up to 86  81 Endoglucanase (GH 12) secretion n.l. [65] 100  100% activity after incubation at 85 °C for 1 h LT221867
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius [66] 55–80  70–77  Amylase (GH 57) membrane-bound enzyme [67] 105  T1/2 2.5 h at 100 °C AAY80509.1 (from CAZy website)
Saccharolobus solfataricus [68]  n.l. 70 Xylanase membrane-bound enzyme [69]   90 T1/2 47 min at 100 °C n.l.
Endoglucanase SSO1949 (GH 12) extracellular enzyme [41] 80 T1/2 8 h at 80 °C (pH 1.8) AAK42142.1; NP_343352.1 (from CAZy website)
Galactosidase intracellular enzyme [70] 95 > 3 h at 75 °C n.l.
Galactosidase secretion n.l. [71] 90 > 2 h at 75 °C n.I.
Galactosidase (GH36) intracellular enzyme [72] 90 T1/2 30 min at 90 °C n.l.
Xylosidase (GH 31) secretion n.l. [73] 90 T1/2 38 h at 90 °C AJ251975
Mannosidase (GH 38) intracellular enzyme [74] 85 > 20% activity after 10 min at 80 °C AAK43108.1; AIX48014.1; CAC24028.1; NP_344318.1 (from CAZy website)
Caldivirga maquilingensis [75] 60–92 85 Galactosidase (GH1) secretion n.l. [76] 110 100% relative activity after 120 min at 90 °C ABW01253.1
Pyrobaculum aerophilum [77] 75–104 100 Glucosidase (GH31) intracellular [78] 90 46% relative activity after 1 h at 110 °C gi:18160499
Picrophilus torridus [79] 45–65 60 Glucosidase (GH31) intracellular enzyme [80] 87 81% relative activity after 120 min at 80 °C AAT42677.1 (from CAZy website)
Mannosidase (GH38) intracellular enzyme [80] 70 50% relative activity after 1 h at 80 °C (with Cd2+) AAT42676.1
Functional screening of metagenomes derived from hydrothermal systems
Metagenome     Characterized GH derived from metagenome (archaeal origin)  Topt [°C] Tstab Genbank accession no.***
Deep sea hydrothermal vent    Endoglucanase (GH 12) extracellular enzyme [81] 92  > 80% activity after incubation at 80 °C for 4,5 h LN850140 (fosmid insert)
Hot spring     Glucosidase (GH 1) secretion n.l. [40] 90  > 67% activity after incubation at 90 °C for 1.5 h HG326254
Combinatorial approach of enrichment culture and screening
Enrichment culture* Archaeon   Characterized GH derived from enrichment culture Topt [°C] Tstab Genbank accession no.***
Shallow marine vent sample from Vulcano Island, incubation 90 °C, cellulosic substrate, anoxic [82] Unknown, not cultivated in pure culture, probably related to Thermococcus   Endoglucanase Vul_Cel5A (GH 5) extracellular enzyme [42] 115 T1/2 43 min at 100 °C MH910342
Glucosidase (GH 1) intracellular enzyme [22] 105 T1/2 99 min at 75 °C MN329095
Sample from 94 °C geothermal pool of northern Nevada, incubated at 90 °C, cellulosic substrates, anoxic [83] Unknown, not cultivated in pure culture, probably related to Ignisphaera   Endoglucanase EBI-244 (multidomain) extracellular enzyme [83]   109 T1/2 4.5 h at 100 °C JF509452
In situ enrichment culture in hot vent (76–99 °C, Kuril archipelago) using xylan as carbon source [84]  Thermococcus sp. Strain 2319X1   Multidomain glycosidase MDG (Multidomain) extracellular enzyme
Full-length protein
Truncated GH5 version [84]
60
90
n.l.
n.l.
CP012200 (genome)
  1. Selection criteria of the reported GHs shown in the table are a high thermo-activity and thermo-stability. GH families (in brackets) and Genbank accession numbers are provided if the respective articles contain this information
  2. n.l. not listed in the original paper
  3. * Literature source reports the first description of the organism
  4. ** Literature source reports the enzyme characterization
  5. *** As provided by the literature source or CAZy