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Table 2 Physico-chemical characteristic and the annual processing cost of pinecones

From: Physico-chemical assessment of torrefied Eurasian pinecones

Torrefaction time (min.) T (°C) F.C (%) Ash content (%) V.M (%) Energy density (GJ m−3) Chemical exergy ε (MJ kg−1) Mass input (g) Mass output (g) M.Y% Average energy consumption of the improvised pilot unit (kW-h)
5 210 92.46 0.47 3.86 5.62 20.91 2.96 2.92 95.61% 0.16
220 94.00 0.63 2.20 6.04 21.28 5.06 4.80
230 79.12 0.64 17.17 6.13 21.43 6.49 6.18
240 84.94 0.78 10.30 6.12 20.95 6.76 6.54
250 82.16 0.94 13.83 6.09 22.09 9.16 8.47
10 210 84.15 1.94 10.83 6 21.78 7.42 6.73 88% 0.066
220 94.33 0.89 1.076 6.25 22.58 6.35 6.05
230 86.79 1.15 9.06 6.16 22.37 4.59 3.75
240 87.76 1.58 6.68 6.35 22.93 5.77 5.13
250 94.31 1.36 1.25 6.60 23.26 5.44 4.70
15 210 94.15 0.96 1.36 5.98 21.58 6.88 6.3 87% 0.18
220 92.34 1.52 2.96 6.20 22.02 5.75 4.9
230 84.46 1.23 11.32 6.72 24.16 4.81 4.11
240 85.07 2.50 8.45 7.22 24.46 5.55 4.98
250 91.33 1.31 4.04 8.44 28.37 5.41 4.6
Total        82.99 75.56 91% 0.40
Raw material 10.27 1.41 80.35 5.95 20.40 155 82.99 53.54% 0.648