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Table 5 Heat of reaction (ΔH) during thermal decomposition of the pre-treated pinecone and the raw pinecone

From: Physico-chemical assessment of torrefied Eurasian pinecones

Reaction regime ΔH (kJ kg−1)
Unprocessed pinecones
ΔH (kJ kg−1)
Torrified pinecones
5 °C min−1 10 °C min−1 15 °C min−1 5 °C min−1 10 °C min−1 15 °C min−1
Exothermic (I), kJ kg−1 − 3.83 − 4.52 − 6.74 − 4.88 − 5.59
Temperature range (I) °C 29–50 28–56 28–64 32–60 31–62
Endothermic(I), kJ kg−1 1.88 3.08 2.36 0.016 0.66 1.77
Temperature range (I) °C 50–72 56–90.72 65–98.35 32–32.4 60–76.14 62–93
Exothermic (II), kJ kg−1 − 697.85 − 468.35 − 455 − 680 − 520 − 426
Temperature range (II) °C 72–335 90.78–351 98–364 32.5–333 36–352.1 93–361.36
Exothermic (III), kJ kg−1 − 182.42 − 200
Temperature range (II) °C 350–483 361.4–508
Exothermic (IV), kJ kg−1 − 839.26 − 877 − 450 − 838 − 882 − 412.35
Temperature range (IV) °C 335–602 351–596 363–606 334–603 352.2–596 508–607
Net heat of reactions (MJ/kg) − 1.54 − 1.53 − 0.91 − 1.52 − 1.40 − 1.04
Energy saving (%) 0 0 0 99.14% 78.57% 25%