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Table 6 Thermodynamic and the cost parameters related to the pyrolysis process

From: Physico-chemical assessment of torrefied Eurasian pinecones

Reaction regime ΔG (kJ kg−1)
Unprocessed pinecones
ΔG (kJ kg−1)
Torrified pinecones
5 °C min−1 10 °C min−1 15 °C min−1 5 °C min−1 10 °C min−1 15 °C min−1
Exerogonic (I) − 3.82 − 4.50 − 6.72 − 4.86 − 5.57
Endergonic(II) 1.87 3.06 2.35 0.02 0.66 1.76
Exerogonic (II) − 695.42 − 466.71 − 453.41 − 677.62 − 518.18 − 424.51
Exerogonic (III) − 181.78 − 199.30
Exerogonic (IV) − 836.32 − 873.93 − 448.42 − 835.067 − 878.91 − 410.91
Entropy of a system (kJ kg−1 K−1) 0.066 0.067 0.036 − 0.0098 − 0.0094 − 0.0069
Exergetic gain 0 0 0 2.06% 1.02% 1.6%
Capital saving per kg of fuel* 0 0 0 1.5ȼ 0.24ȼ 0.08ȼ
  1. * It depends on the energy policy of a country