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Table 1 Summary of bio-based production of d-glucaric acid.

From: Cell-based and cell-free biocatalysis for the production of d-glucaric acid

  Year Hosts Genes Carbon sources Titer (g/L) Yield (g/g) Refs.
In vivo 2009 E. coli BL21 Star (DE3) ino1, MIOX, udh Glucose 1.13 0.113 [18]
2010 E. coli BL21 Star(DE3) ino1, MIOX, udh Glucose 2.50 0.250 [22]
2014 E. coli MG1655 ino1, SUMO-MIOX, udh Myo-inositol 4.85 0.449 [26]
2015 E. coli IB1486 ino1, SUMO-MIOX, udh Glucose 1.56 0.124 [44]
2017 E. coli L19S ino1, MIOX, udh Glucose > 0.8 [45]
2018 E. coli K-12 ino1, MIOX, udh Glucose 1.98 0.198 [48]
2018 E. coli BL21 Star(DE3) cscB, cscA, cscK, ino1, MIOX, udh, suhB Sucrose 1.42 0.27 [19]
2020 E. coli BL21 Star(DE3) ino1, MIOX, udh, suhB Glucose 5.35 0.467 [40]
2016 S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1D opi1Δ ino1, inm, MIOX, udh Glucose 0.98 0.33 [50]
2016 S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1D opi1Δ ino1, inm, MIOX, udh Glucose, myo-inositol 1.6 [50]
2016 P. pastoris GS115 MIOX, udh Glucose, myo-inositol 6.61 [50]
2018 S. cerevisiae BY4741 opi1∆ ino1, MIOX, udh Glucose, myo-inositol 6.0 [55]
2020 S. cerevisiae ino1, inm, MIOX, udh, vhB Glucose 6.38 0.128 [58]
In vitro 2016 Soluble enzymes xyn, AG, udh Hemicellulose [67]
2019 Soluble enzymes SP, PGM1, MIPS, IMPASE, MIOX, udh, nox Sucrose 7.31 0.75 [64]
2020 Soluble enzymes AxyAgu115A, GOOX Xylan [68]
2020 Immobilized enzymes PGM1, IPS, IMP, MIOX, udh, nox Glucose-1-phosphate 1.70 ± 0.04 0.202 [69]