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Table 4 Comparative characterization LCA results per 1 g of PHB produced from DMC/ethanol (dry biomass) or from chloroform/hexane

From: Novel insights in dimethyl carbonate-based extraction of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

Impact category Abbreviation Unit PHB from DMC/ethanol PHB from chloroform/hexane
Climate change CC kg CO2 eq 5.34·102 2.09·102
Ozone depletion OD kg CFC-11 eq 1.37·10–5 3.65·10–2
Human toxicity, non-cancer effects HTNC CTUh 1.84·10–5 2.49·10–5
Human toxicity, cancer effects HTC CTUh 2.45·10–6 3.47·10–6
Particulate matter PM kg PM2.5 eq 1.81·10–1 9.07·10–2
Ionizing radiation in human health IRHH kBq U235 eq 8.29·100 1.09·101
Ionizing radiation in ecosystems IRE CTUe 6.40·10–5 7.90·10–5
Photochemical ozone formation POF kg NMVOC eq 1.66·100 5.14·10–1
Acidification AC molc H+ eq 2.47·100 8.87·10–1
Terrestrial eutrophication TE molc N eq 4.23·100 1.26·100
Freshwater eutrophication FWE kg P eq 8.80·10–2 8.72·10–3
Marine eutrophication ME kg N eq 2.67·10–1 1.15·10–1
Freshwater ecotoxicity WT CTUe 2.13·102 5.63·101
Land use LU kg C deficit 1.36·102 1.40·102
Water resource depletion WRD m3 H2O eq 1.49·102 1.85·102
Mineral, fossil and renewable resource depletion FFD kg Sb eq 1.11·10–2 7.73·10–3