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Table 2 Commonly used counter-selectable markers and associated selections for homologous recombination in bacteria

From: Approaches to genetic tool development for rapid domestication of non-model microorganisms

Marker Counterselection Reference
sacB Sucrose [101]
upp 5-Fluorouracil [102]
hpt 8-Azahypoxanthine, others [103]
tdk 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine [104]
pyrF/ura3a 5-Fluoroorotic acid [105]
pheS*(A294G) p-Chloro-phenylalanine [106]
codA 5-Fluorocytosine [107]
Inducible mazF N/A; expression is toxic [95]
galK 2-Deoxygalactose [108]
apt 2-Fluoroadenine [109]
rpsL(strA) Streptomycin [110]
tetARa Fusaric acid [111]
thyA Trimethoprim [112]
Inducible ccdB Expression is toxic [113]
oroP 5-Fluoroorotate [114]
pta-ack Chloroacetate [115]
  1. aCan be used as a positive selectable marker with uracil prototrophy and tetracycline resistance, respectively