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Table 1 Summary of analytical methodologies used to analyze suberin structure and composition

From: Importance of suberin biopolymer in plant function, contributions to soil organic carbon and in the production of bio-derived energy and materials

Technique Methods/experiments/types/parameters Results or findings References
Wet Chemistry Acid/base-catalyzed transesterification/methanolysis Total suberin content, depolymerized components [8,9,10, 53]
Microscopy TEM Lamellar structure of cell wall [47]
SEM Isolated suberin macromolecular structure [46]
Confocal, fluorescence, histological staining Suberin presence and relative abundance in cell walls and tissues [48,49,50,51,52]
NMR Solution-state NMR, solid-state NMR Aliphatics, phenolics and glycerol are components of suberin [43, 45, 69, 73, 166,167,168]
Solution-state NMR, solid-state NMR Polyaromatic and phenolic composition, hydroxycinnamates including ferulic acid, lignin-like subunits [75, 102, 169,170,171,172,173]
Solid-state NMR relaxation and dynamics studies Two distinct methylene CH2 environments identified with differing dynamics, aliphatic acylglycerols with mid-chain modified hydrocarbons found in more rigid core, saturated alkanols and alkanoic acids are more dynamic and spatially distinct [69,70,71,72,73, 79, 174]
Solution-state NMR, gel-state NMR Primary structure: how monomeric units are linked to polymeric / oligomeric units [46, 74, 160]
  Solid-state NMR Overall superstructure and domain architecture [70, 72, 79, 160]
Mass Spectrometry GC/MS of depolymerized components Phenolics, lipids, glycerol components as monomers [9, 53, 57]
LC/MS of depolymerized components Phenolics, lipids, glycerol components as monomers and oligomers [54]
Pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of biomass Fingerprinting for phenolics and lipid components, screening for thermochemical conversion paradigms [59, 150]
Pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of soils Fingerprinting for phenolics and lipid components, biomarker for plant species in soils [60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68]
MALDI-MS Suberin structure in tissue and separate hydrolysate analysis for phenolics, lipids [56]