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Table 11 GHG emission analysis of ethanol production

From: Assessing the sweet sorghum-based ethanol potential on saline–alkali land with DSSAT model and LCA approach

Procedure or Item Energy type
Electricity [30, 40,41,42] Coal [30, 40,41,42]
Pretreatment 95 kWh/t ethanol
Fermentation 50 kWh/t ethanol
Rectification 25 kWh/t ethanol
Dehydration 40 kWh/t ethanol
Residue handling 143 kWh/t ethanol
Accessory equipment 20 kWh/t ethanol 611.2 kg/t ethanol
By-product production 106 kWh/t ethanol
Denaturing 7.416 kWh/t ethanol
Avoided by by-products  − 106 kWh/t ethanol
Energy consumption 380.416 kWh/t ethanol 611.2 kg/t ethanol
Carbon coefficients 0.26 kg CO2 eq /kWh 0.52 kg CO2 eq /kg coal
Carbon emission 98.91 kg CO2 eq/t ethanol 317.824 kg CO2 eq/t ethanol