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Table 2 Several bioprocesses using waste for bio-lipids production

From: Waste biorefinery towards a sustainable circular bioeconomy: a solution to global issues

Microbial strain Waste material(s) Culture mode(s) Results Reference(s)
Yeast cultivation
 Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 Acetic acid Flask culture, 3-L stirred-tank bioreactor, continuous culture with nitrogen-rich condition at a dilution rate of 0.04 h−1 Lipid content = 73.4%, 49.9%, 56.7%, respectively [62]
 Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 Hemicellulose hydrolysate (from sugarcane bagasse) Flask culture, batch bioreactor culture Lipid content = 26.9%, 26.1%, respectively [64]
 Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 Acetic acid Batch culture with 20 g/L acetic acid, sequencing batch culture with 4 g/L acetic acid Lipid content = 48.2%, 38.6%, respectively [63]
 Yarrowia lipolytica MUCL 28849 VFAs (acetic, propionic and butyric acid) and glycerol Two-stage fed-batch bioreactor fermentation Lipid content =  ~ 40%
Lipid concentration = 12.4 g/L
[56]
 Yarrowia lipolytica W29 (ATCC 20460) Pork lard Batch culture Lipid content = 58% [65]
Algal cultivation
 Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21 K2HPO4-waste feedstock Lab-scale flask culture (100 mL) Lipid content = 8.29%
DHA production = 128.81 mg/L
[76]
 Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 Empty palm fruit bunches 5-L fermenter Lipid content = 36.3%
Lipid concentration = 12.5 g/L
DHA concentration = 5.4 g/L
[70]
 Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 Palm oil mill effluent Bioreactor fermentation process Biomass concentration = 2.12 g/L
Lipid content = 11.21% (using acid-heat pretreated 30% (v/v) palm oil mill effluent)
[74]
 Chlorella sorokiniana 211-32 Acetate-rich oxidised wine waste lees Fed-batch mixotrophic culture Biomass concentration = 11 g/L
Lipid content = 38%
[77]
 Chlorella vulgaris FACHB-31 Biological effluent of landfill leachate Membrane photobioreactor fermentation system Bio-lipids produced displayed good combustion properties
Low linolenic acid content (8.32%) and high cetane number (60.96%)
[72]
 Chlorella vulgaris SAG 211-19 Seafood wastewater effluent Bioreactor fermentation process Lipid content = 32.15% [73]
 Scenedesmus sp. R-16 Starch-rich food waste A two-stage process: dark fermentation and microalgal culture (bioreactor culture) Biohydrogen yield = 1643.5 mL/L
Lipid yield = 515.6 mg/L
[79]
 Scenedesmus sp. Agricultural biomass waste (corn cob and stalk, rice and wheat straw) A two-stage process: dark fermentation and microalgal culture (batch culture) Corn stalk was the best fermentation feedstock for biohydrogen production
Biomass concentration = 1461.1 mg/L
Lipid content = 35.2% (using corn stalk as substrate)
[78]
 Tetradesmus obliquus AARL G022 Chicken manure digestate Co-culture of green microalgal and actinomycetes consortium (gram-positive mycelial bacteria)
Lab-scale flask culture
Nocardia bhagyanarayanae I-27 prompted a higher biomass (1.2 g/L), chlorophyll a (15.6 µg/mL) and lipid (20.8%) content in a co-culture with Tetradesmus obliquus using 25% diluted digestate [75]
 Not specified Acidogenic effluents (fermented distillery wastewater and fermented dairy wastewater) Mixotrophic culture, heterotrophic culture Microalgae cultivation with mixotrophic mode using fermented distillery wastewater showed high biomass productivity in growth phase
Microalgae cultivation with mixo- and heterotrophic mode using fermented dairy wastewater showed high lipid (34%) and neutral lipid (13%) content, respectively, in stress phase
[71]