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Table 1 Summary of the contents (wt %) of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in common plant feedstocks

From: Recent advances in the valorization of plant biomass

Biomass Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Refs. Biomass Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Refs.
Crop residues      Hardwood     
Rice straw 36.2–47 16–35 5.6–36.1 [181, 257, 258] Hardwood stems 40–55 24–40 18–25 [14]
Rice husk 32.7–41.52 14.04–29.3 18.1–33.67 [258,259,260,261] Poplar 42–49 16–23 21–29 [181]
Wheat straw 30–43.4 19.45–45.2 7.5–22.2 [258, 262,263,264] Willow 36–39 21–22 19–20 [181]
Sorghum bagasse 27.3–45 13.1–36 14.3–25 [264, 265] Eucalyptus 34.2–51.1 8.9–30.2 21.4–39.2 [266]
Sorghum straw 26.93 32.57 10.16 [264] Oak 33.9–43.2 21.9–25.9 27.8–35.4 [264, 267]
Sugarcane bagasse 38.01–45 17.1–33.27 4.01–33.56 [143, 144, 258, 261]      
Corn stover 32–45 15.49–35 7–22.74 [14, 116, 262]      
Corn cob 39.3–52.49 23.7–35 12.5–19.6 [181, 261, 263] Softwood     
Corn straw 51.53 30.88 17.59 [258, 263] Softwood stems 45–50 25–35 25–35 [14]
Corn stalk 36.89 29.33 13.93 [261] Beech 45.05–51.3 28–31.86 19.6–22.25 [261, 263, 268]
Tobacco residue 42.3–44.32 28.89–41.54 15.01–26.79 [263, 267] Japanese larch 58.6 13.0 20.1 [269]
Barley straw 35.4 28.7 13.1 [264] Pine 34–45.6 20.1–34.6 26–34.4 [181, 264]
Wastes of fruit processing industries    Spruce 24.7–47.11 10.2–21.31 31.58–35 [263, 264]
Banana peel 52.30 9.90 11.2 [267]      
Olive leaves 12.72–15.38 7.47–9.16 15.15–17.8 [270]      
Olive stone 30.10 17.10 32.6 [267] Grasses     
Extracted olive pomace 40.00 22 19 [264] Miscanthus 40–53 18–26.2 20–26.5 [14, 181, 271]
Acai seed 53.20 12.30 22.3 [17] Switchgrass 39.5–45 20.3–31.5 12–20 [14, 181]
Cocoa shell 13.20 10.80 13.2 [267] Bamboo 37–46.5 16.6–18.8 25.7–39.2 [264, 272]
Peanut shell 24.70 39.40 33.5 [267] Agave bagasse 38.4–47.3 12.8–23.5 10.1–15 [273,274,275]
Walnut shell 40.10 20.70 18.2 [267] Agave leaf 46–79.8 15.7–30 4.9–11 [275]