Skip to main content
Fig. 3 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 3

From: Towards sustainable production and utilization of plant-biomass-based nanomaterials: a review and analysis of recent developments

Fig. 3

Reproduced with permission from Chen et al. [143] © The Royal Society of Chemistry

Concentrated solid dicarboxylic acid (DCA) hydrolysis for integrated production of highly thermal stable and carboxylated DC-CNCs and DC-CNFs with acid recovery. a Schematic flow diagram; b, c A comparison of thermal stability of DC-CNCs after heating at 105 °C for 4 h with S-CNCs from S64T45t45 (b: 64 wt% sulfuric acid at 45 °C for 45 min) with that from O70T100t60 (c: 70 wt% oxalic acid at 110 °C for 60 min).

Back to article page