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Fig. 4 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 4

From: Towards sustainable production and utilization of plant-biomass-based nanomaterials: a review and analysis of recent developments

Fig. 4

Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. [146] © Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

AFM images and AFM-measured height distributions of concentrated maleic acid (MA) hydrolysis M-CNCs (ad) and M-CNFs (eh) produced from bleached eucalyptus pulp fibers under various concentrated MA hydrolysis severities: CHFG = 1.0, 4.1; 6.8, 20.4 for ad (CNCs), respectively; CHFG = 0.01, 0.09; 1.12, 2.04 for eh (M-CNFs), respectively. The M-CNF shown in eh were produced using only one pass through a microfluidizer. Scale bar = 500 nm for ad and h, = 2 μm for eg.

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