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Table 1 LNP preparation methods

From: Towards sustainable production and utilization of plant-biomass-based nanomaterials: a review and analysis of recent developments

Method Raw lignin Solvent/antisolvent Morphology, size Surface properties Applications Refs.
Solvent shifting (nanoprecipitation, solvent exchange) KL Acetone and water/water Spherical, ca. 100 nm Hydrophilic, pH 4.3 ζ ca. -25 mV
pH 3.9 ζ ca. -27 mV
Pickering emulsions, drug delivery
[61, 62]
KL   Spherical, ca. 244 nm ζ ca. -37 mV Component of biomaterial ink for 3D printing of scaffolds for cell culture [78]
KL   Spherical, ca. 109 nm, ca. 70.8 nm ζ ca. -36 mV
ζ ca. -37 mV
Water purification [79]
KL   Spherical, ca. 91 nm, pH 4.0 ζ ca. -30 mV Model surfaces [80]
KL   Spherical, ca. 97 nm, ζ ca. -40 mV Biocatalytic particles for SET-LRP, Pickering emulsions [81]
KL(+ BADGE)   Spherical, core–shell
From 71 to 113 nm
ζ from ca. -32 mV to ca. -37 mV Covalent surface modification, adhesives [82]
KL THF and water/water Spherical,
177–300 nm
Hydrophilic, smooth, ζ = 33–45 mV at pH 7 Pickering emulsions, immobilization of biocatalyst, adhesives [55]
KL   Spherical, ca. 142 nm pH 3.9 ζ ca. -24.4 Model surfaces [80]
OSL   Spherical, smooth, aggregated, ca. 219 nm   Enzyme immobilization, biosensing [85]
KL   Spherical, 200–500 nm Hydrophilic smooth, ζ ca. -60 mV   [52]
Acetylated AL THF/water Spherical, 110 nm
Potential in drug delivery and microencapsulation
photo-protection agent
Organic acid lignin   100–600, 600–5000, 400–2000 nm    
KL THF and EtOH and water/water Spherical, 200 nm Hydrophilic smooth,
ζ ca. -40 mV
Pickering emulsions, polymer composites [63]
Carboxylated KL THF/water Spherical, 167 nm   Biomedical applications, drug delivery [87]
EHL Acetone and water/water or acetone Spherical    [67]
AL EtOH and water/water Spherical, 50–100 nm, 250–350 nm Hydrophilic smooth, ζ ca. − 43 mV Drug delivery [64]
Reverse micelles AL Dioxane/cyclohexane Spherical Hydrophobic, smooth Nanocomposites: UV-blocking, optimization of rheological properties [68]
Acidification, pH shifting KL (Indulin AT) EG/HCl aq Aggregate-like clusters Uneven surface Drug delivery, sorbents for heavy metal ions [50]
  NaOH aq/HNO3 aq Aggregate-like clusters Uneven surface   
KL EG/ HNO3 aq Aggregate-like clusters, 84 nm uneven surface, ζ ca. -33 mV Antimicrobial silver-infused nanoparticles [69]
KL EG/HNO3 aq Aggregate-like uneven surface, partly hydrophilic, Surface functionalization with, e.g., antimicrobial agents [88]
  AL NaOH aq/H2SO4 aq Aggregate-like 768.4 ± 97.8 nm, 725.4 ± 51.3 nm ζ ca. 2.8 mV
ζ ca. − 13.4 mV
Emulsification, Pickering emulsion, template for synthesis of polymer capsules [89]
Aerosol flow reactor, dry particles Hydrothermal treatment Acetone/none Spherical Smooth, hydrophilic, ζ ca. -35 mV   [38]
KL, AL, OSL DMF/none
Spherical, 30 nm-2000 nm Smooth surface, hydrophilic
KL ζ ca. -40 mV
OSL ζ ca. -36 mV
Pickering emulsions [46]
KL DMF/none Spherical, 50–2000 nm Smooth Coatings [91]
Aerosol + freezing AL DMSO/water Spherical particles and capsules, 80–200 nm Smooth, hydrophilic, negatively charged UV absorption, drug delivery [71]
CO2 precipitation KL DMF/CO2 Coalesced quasi-spherical, ca. 38 nm Uneven surface, hydrophilic UV absorption [92]
Mechanical treatment
 Sonication AL Water Irregular, 10–50 nm Uneven surface   [73]
 Homogenization KL Water Irregular, < 100 nm Uneven surface Nanocomposites: improvement of thermal and mechanical prop [74]
 Ball milling    Irregular, ca. 10 nm Uneven surface   [48]
 Low temperature milling   Irregular, ca. 10 nm Uneven surface   [93]