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Table 2 Summary on economic parameters of different processes with different feedstock

From: An overview to process design, simulation and sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production

Oil feedstock Catalyst Reaction media Plant capacity (tons/year) Operation mode Production cost (million $/year) Manufacturing cost (million $/year) Biodiesel cost ($/kg) Refs.
Chemical-catalysed processes
 Vegetable oil
 Waste cooking oil
 Waste cooking oil
 Waste cooking oil
Alkali
Alkali
Acid
Acid (hexane extraction)
None 8000 Continuous 7.59
7.76
5.92
6.35
6.86
7.08
5.15
5.62
0.857
0.884
0.644
0.702
[57]
 Waste cooking oil Acid/alkali
Homogenous acid
Heterogeneous acid
Non-catalytic
None 8000 Continuous 5.78
5.37
4.45
5.19
5.20
4.76
3.88
4.59



[22]
 Fresh canola oil
 Waste canola oil
 Waste canola oil
Alkali
Acid/alkali
Non-catalytic
None 40,000 Continuous 50.9
40.2
32.49
45.8
35
29
1.0 ($/L)
0.762
0.632
[32]
 Rapeseed oil Alkali None 50,000 Continuous 65.9   1.15 ($/L) [50]
 Waste cooking oil Non-catalytic None 8000
80,000
125,000
Continuous   3.5389
17.134
18.790
0.52 ($/L)
0.24
0.17
[51]
 Waste cooking oil Non-catalytic
Alkali
None 100,000 Continuous 54.934
55.590
  0.727 ($/L)
0.671
[52]
 Crude soybean oil Alkali None 37,854,118 L/year Continuous 21.329 20.041 0.53 ($/L) [55]
 Palm oil Alkali None 1000 Batch 1166.7 ($/ton of biodiesel) 2.3 ($/L) [59]
      Enzyme productivity (kg biodiesel/kg enzyme) Enzyme price ($/kg)   
Enzyme-catalysed processes
 Rapeseed oil Immobilized enzyme None 8000
200,000
Continuous 1200 1000
10
1000
10
1.95
0.98
0.96
0.065
[23]
 Palm oil Immobilized enzyme None 1000 Batch 5 cycles 1200 2.414 [59]
 Waste cooking oil Immobilized enzyme None 8000 Continuous 200 cycles 1.15 [58]
 Rapeseed oil Immobilized enzyme Co-solvent 8000
200,000
Continuous 4250 1000
10
1000
10
3.12
2.87
2.23
1.97
[23]
 Waste oil Immobilized enzyme Co-solvent 8500 Continuous 2000 $/klU 0.86 [34]
 Waste cooking sunflower oil Immobilized enzyme Supercritical CO2 8000 Continuous 800 €/kg
8 €/kg
1.64 €/L
0.75 €/L
[36]
 Palm oil Soluble lipase None 1000 Batch Single use 7.821 [59]
 Vegetable oil Soluble lipase N/A 11,200 Continuous Single use 1000 1.4 [45]