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Table 2 Summary on economic parameters of different processes with different feedstock

From: An overview to process design, simulation and sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production

Oil feedstock

Catalyst

Reaction media

Plant capacity (tons/year)

Operation mode

Production cost (million $/year)

Manufacturing cost (million $/year)

Biodiesel cost ($/kg)

Refs.

Chemical-catalysed processes

 Vegetable oil

 Waste cooking oil

 Waste cooking oil

 Waste cooking oil

Alkali

Alkali

Acid

Acid (hexane extraction)

None

8000

Continuous

7.59

7.76

5.92

6.35

6.86

7.08

5.15

5.62

0.857

0.884

0.644

0.702

[57]

 Waste cooking oil

Acid/alkali

Homogenous acid

Heterogeneous acid

Non-catalytic

None

8000

Continuous

5.78

5.37

4.45

5.19

5.20

4.76

3.88

4.59

[22]

 Fresh canola oil

 Waste canola oil

 Waste canola oil

Alkali

Acid/alkali

Non-catalytic

None

40,000

Continuous

50.9

40.2

32.49

45.8

35

29

1.0 ($/L)

0.762

0.632

[32]

 Rapeseed oil

Alkali

None

50,000

Continuous

65.9

 

1.15 ($/L)

[50]

 Waste cooking oil

Non-catalytic

None

8000

80,000

125,000

Continuous

 

3.5389

17.134

18.790

0.52 ($/L)

0.24

0.17

[51]

 Waste cooking oil

Non-catalytic

Alkali

None

100,000

Continuous

54.934

55.590

 

0.727 ($/L)

0.671

[52]

 Crude soybean oil

Alkali

None

37,854,118 L/year

Continuous

21.329

20.041

0.53 ($/L)

[55]

 Palm oil

Alkali

None

1000

Batch

1166.7 ($/ton of biodiesel)

2.3 ($/L)

[59]

     

Enzyme productivity (kg biodiesel/kg enzyme)

Enzyme price ($/kg)

  

Enzyme-catalysed processes

 Rapeseed oil

Immobilized enzyme

None

8000

200,000

Continuous

1200

1000

10

1000

10

1.95

0.98

0.96

0.065

[23]

 Palm oil

Immobilized enzyme

None

1000

Batch

5 cycles

1200

2.414

[59]

 Waste cooking oil

Immobilized enzyme

None

8000

Continuous

200 cycles

1.15

[58]

 Rapeseed oil

Immobilized enzyme

Co-solvent

8000

200,000

Continuous

4250

1000

10

1000

10

3.12

2.87

2.23

1.97

[23]

 Waste oil

Immobilized enzyme

Co-solvent

8500

Continuous

2000 $/klU

0.86

[34]

 Waste cooking sunflower oil

Immobilized enzyme

Supercritical CO2

8000

Continuous

800 €/kg

8 €/kg

1.64 €/L

0.75 €/L

[36]

 Palm oil

Soluble lipase

None

1000

Batch

Single use

7.821

[59]

 Vegetable oil

Soluble lipase

N/A

11,200

Continuous

Single use

1000

1.4

[45]