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Table 3 An overview of LCA studies focusing biodiesel production

From: An overview to process design, simulation and sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production

Feedstock Focus Functional unit Boundaries Allocation Impact categories Refs.
Jatropha Comparison of two technologies using differed catalyst 1 ton biodiesel Well-to-wheels Human health, ecosystem quality, resources [76]
Rapeseed Comparison of inorganic and biocatalytic production of biodiesel 1 ton biodiesel Cradle-to-gate Mass ARD, GWP, FWAE, AP/EP, MAE, OLD, HT, TE, PO [33]
Waste vegetable oil Comparison of process alternatives 1 ton biodiesel Industrial Mass ARD, AP, EP, GWP, MAE, OLD, HT, TE, PO, FWAE [74]
Palm oil Comparison of alkali and biocatalytic process 1, 5, 10 Mg biodiesel Cradle-to-gate CC, C, RO, RI, OLD, E, AP/EP, ME, R, LU, FF [67]
Poultry fat
Sewage sludge
Beef tallow
Waste cooking oil
Comparison of four production technologies from different FFA-rich wastes 1 ton biodiesel Feed transportation and industrial Mass GWP, AP, EP, OLD, PO, NRED [73]
Palm oil Comparison of biodiesel technology using bio and alkali catalyst 1 ton biodiesel
1 ha palm oil
Agriculture and industrial Mass C, RO, RI, CC, R, OLD, E, AP/EP, LU, ME, FF [70]
Waste vegetable oil Biodiesel manufacturing 2018 kg biodiesel Cradle to gate GHG [78]
Waste vegetable oil
Soybean oil
Comparison of the environmental impacts from alkali and biocatalytic biodiesel production 1 ton biodiesel Cradle to gate Mass ARD, GWP, OLD, TE, PO, HT, FWAE, AP, EP, MAE [11]
Jatropha oil
Waste vegetable oil
Comparison between jatropha oil and waste vegetable oil for biodiesel production using alkali-catalysed process 1 ton biodiesel Cradle to gate GWP, HT, RI, RO, OLD, TE, MAE, AP, EP, LU, NRED, ME [65]
Soybean oil Comparison between ethylic enzymatic and methylic alkaline routes for the production of biodiesel 1 ton biodiesel Cradle to gate NRED, GHG, OLD, PO, AP, LEG, SWG [75]
Soybean oil
Palm oil
Comparison of biodiesel production from palm and soybean oil 1 MJ biodiesel Cradle to gate Energy ARD, GWP, HT, AP, EP [66]
Soybean oil
Comparison of biodiesel derived from jatropha, soybean and microalgae 1 MJ biodiesel Well to wheel Mass energy GWP, ARD, OLD, PO, AP, EP, HT, FWAE, MAE, TE [60]
  1. ARD abiotic resources depletion, GWP global warming potential, MAE marine aquatic ecotoxicity, TE terrestrial ecotoxicity, OLD ozone layer depletion, PO photochemical oxidation, HT human toxicity, EP eutrophication potential, FWAE fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, AP acidification potential, CC climate change, C carcinogens, RO respiratory organics, RI respiratory inorganic, E ecotoxicity, ME minerals extraction, LU land use, FF fossil fuels, NRED non-renewable energy demand, R radiation, GHG greenhouse gas emissions, SWG solid waste generation, LEG liquid effluents generation